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- Volume 17, Issue 2, 2009
IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal - Volume 17, Issue 2, 2009
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Volume 17, Issue 2, 2009
Source: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 17, pp 1 –18 (2009)More Less
There have been a number of studies on study skills in the past few decades but have been limited to developed countries. Concerns have also been raised by various researchers about the latent constructs of existing western scales to assess study skills. The objective of this study was to develop, standardize and validate a culturally sensitive study skills questionnaire (SSQ). Methods: a stratified random sample of secondary school students (n = 649) between age 12 and 21 completed SSQ, developed through a three stage procedure. Psychometric properties of the instrument including reliability (internal consistencies and test-retest reliability), validity (content, convergent and criterion), item correlation and latent constructs were assessed. Result: The internal consistencies of the eight subscales were acceptable (r = 0.85 to 0.86; p < 0.001) and the intra-class coefficient was good (r = 0.871, p < 0.001). SSQ subscales had an acceptable three-week test-retest reliability (r = 0.598 to 0.878; p < 0.001) and good convergent and criterion validity. Using the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve, the optimal cut-off score was 114.5 (sensitivity = 0.780; specificity = 0.735). SSQ had two latent constructs (will and skill) accounting for 56.98% of the total variance. These constructs were interrelated and were both significant predictors of academic performance. Conclusion: SSQ has good psychometric properties among secondary schools students in Nigeria. Because of its validity, reliability, and ease of administration, the SSQ is a valuable tool in diagnosis and prescriptive purposes. More studies are needed to ascertain the potentials of this instrument.
Managing the knowledge worker in a knowledge economy : present problems and future prospects in African organizationsAuthor Tongo Constantine ImafidonSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 17, pp 19 –39 (2009)More Less
The academic field of management has always evolved with theories that present certain assumptions about the nature of man. Based on these assumptions, management theorists devise ways by which the human factor within work organizations could be effectively managed. For instance, the proponents of classical management theory, the human relations theory of management, and the systems and contingency theories of management; implicitly assumed that man had an economic, social, and complex nature respectively. However, with the birthing of the knowledge economy, the nature of man seems to have metamorphosed into that which continuously and passionately craves for knowledge. Consequently, modern managers are now confronted with the problem of how to manage the worker who possesses a lot of knowledge at his or her disposal. Paradoxically, African management philosophers and practitioners seem to be oblivious of the need to create a unique way of managing the knowledge worker. The reason being that Africa's current management literature is replete with the idea that African managers have to break away from a command and control orientation based on classical management principles inherited from their colonial masters to a system of management that befits the collectivistic ethos of the African society, in order for them to effectively manage their human capital. Hence most management philosophers of African origin are still saddled with the problem of how to manage the "African social man" and not how to manage the "African knowledgeable man". Going by this prevailing African management thinking, it is therefore the objective of this paper to analyze the attendant problems, as well as present the future prospects of managing the knowledge worker within African organizations in a knowledge based economy.
Author Clement Kwadzo AgezoSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 17, pp 40 –64 (2009)More Less
The role of the teacher in the modern school system is increasingly important and complex. A teacher needs a high level of professional knowledge and autonomous decision making when faced with professional challenges. Educational reform in Ghana like any other parts of the world calls for the type of teacher who is highly trained, motivated, dedicated and committed to the teaching profession to effect the anticipated desirable changes among students. In the era of increasing standard and accountability in education, teacher quality and training is more important than ever. Teachers are expected to demonstrate excellence in the practical craft of teaching, show regard for highest standard of ethical behavior in their relationship with students, colleagues, head teachers, and external publics. Teachers are to exhibit courage and leadership, and work collaboratively with colleagues for the benefit of students.
The influence of personal & psychological factors on proneness of athletes in Ogun State to abuse drugsSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 17, pp 65 –78 (2009)More Less
The study examined the influence of gender, educational level, perceived self-efficacy and achievement striving behaviour on proneness of athletes in Ogun State to abuse drugs. Descriptive survey design was adopted. A simple random sampling technique was used to select 304 participants. The age range of participants is between 13 and 35, with 138 male and 166 female. Three instruments were used to collect data; and t-test statistical procedure was utilized to analyze data. Results indicated that there is no significant gender, educational level and achievement striving differentials in the proneness of athletes to abuse drug, but there is significant difference in the proneness to abuse drugs between athletes with high and low self-efficacy. Consequently, it was suggested that measures should be taken to enhance the self-efficacy skills of athletes for better results in the battle against drug abuse among sports men and women.
Author Bill Buenar PuplampuSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 17, pp 79 –105 (2009)More Less
This paper sets out to examine some of the literature on the 'Meaning of Work' (MOW) concept and demonstrate the apparent confusion in the use of MOW. It argues that MOW is at present not clearly defined. Based on a limited review of the extant literatures the paper suggests that conceptually and operationally, MOW must be kept distinct from the several constructs that have come to be used in close association with it. Examples of such constructs are 'job involvement', 'work values', 'work ethics'. It is argued that MOW could be conceived of as an abstract, but forcibly present belief or notion about work and its origin, which provides human beings with a backdrop for much of life's activities. It is also suggested that MOW should not be seen as a motivational concept, in that it may not be possible to predict work effort or behaviour directly from the articulated MOW of a person or group. The paper attempts a definition of the Meaning of Work and puts forward three propositions to guide future work. To date, the research efforts in the area of MOW have proceeded without a clear definition or theoretical base for the concept. This paper calls for debate on the ontological (the nature) and teleological (the purpose) base of the concept 'work', its meaning in society and application in work psychology. Such debate would inform the MOW concept and help set it aside as distinct from other concepts.
Mediatory role of emotional intelligence on the relationship between self-reported misconduct and bullying behaviour among secondary school studentsAuthor Ojedokun A. OluyinkaSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 17, pp 107 –121 (2009)More Less
Despite the growing body of literature on bullying behaviour, its antecedents and outcomes, few research studies have investigated bullying behaviour and its antecedents in Nigeria. In particular, there is relatively lack of substantial empirical publications on the mediating role of emotional intelligence in the relationship between misconduct and bullying behaviour. This study explored the association between misconduct and bullying behaviour, and tested whether emotional intelligence mediates this association. A total of two-hundred and fifteen (n=215) secondary school students randomly selected from five secondary schools in Ago-Iwoye, Ogun State participated in the study. The participants comprised of boys (n=106, 49.30%) and girls (n=109, 50.70%) with ages ranged from 16 to 22 years and a mean age of 19 years (Sd= 3.19). The participants completed measures of misconduct, emotional intelligence and bullying behaviour. Demographics data of the participants were also obtained. Results indicated that : misconduct was positively associated with bullying behaviour, but negatively associated with emotional intelligence while emotional intelligence was negatively related to bullying behaviour. Lastly, emotional intelligence significantly mediated the relationship between misconduct and bullying behaviour. It was concluded that bullying behaviour among secondary school students directly and indirectly are under the influence of variables like misconduct and emotional intelligence. These findings imply that misconduct, emotional intelligence and bullying behaviour can be measure among incoming and old secondary school students. It is therefore recommended that psychological services should be harness in designing emotional intelligence training to be inculcated into secondary school curriculum in order to reduce incidence of bullying behaviour.
Organisational knowledge leadership and employee productivity : a study of Imo State, Nigeria Civil ServiceAuthor E.B.J. IheriohanmaSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 17, pp 122 –139 (2009)More Less
This paper examines the relationship existing between knowledge leadership and the utilization of workers' ability and motivation for productivity. It explains that the interplay between effective knowledge leadership and style, proper utilization of workers' ability and motivation affects organizational productivity. Knowledge leadership occupies a very sensitive position in any knowledge-driven modern organization. This paper observes that amongst the workforce in Nigeria, there are workers endowed with high ability and whose values and contributions need to be harnessed and improved upon for high productivity. It challenges leadership in organization to fully utilize them for high productivity and national economic development. The paper implicates amongst others, the absence of organizational knowledge leadership and efficient management styles especially in this era of knowledge-driven production economy, for motivating organization's workforce, as the root cause of this malaise in productivity. It underscores the need for efficient organizational knowledge imbued with practical leadership and spiritual capital for the establishment and implementation of organizational and management initiative for sustainable productivity.
Parental socio-economic status as correlate of child abuse and neglect in Ibadan, Oyo State of NigeriaAuthor Sunday G. OlawaleSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 17, pp 140 –148 (2009)More Less
This empirical study investigated educational level and socio-economic status as correlates of child abuse and neglect. One hundred and forty-four Junior Secondary School (JSS) students (72 males, 72 females) randomly selected from four Secondary Schools in Ibadan metropolis participated in the study. The instrument employed was Child Abuse and Neglect Inventory with psychometric property of .68. Two null hypotheses were tested at .05 level of significance. Results showed that JSS students whose parents had lower educational level were significantly abused and neglected than their counterparts whose parents had higher educational levels. It was also found that JSS Students with lower socio-economic background experienced significant abuse and neglect than JSS students with higher socio-economic background. Based on these findings, recommendations were advanced towards curbing child abuse and neglect in the nation.
Exploring the relationship between performance attributions, grade expectation and tendency to cheat during examinations among PGDE students in University of BotswanaSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 17, pp 149 –164 (2009)More Less
Performance attribution style plays a significant role in determining whether or not students engage on academic dishonesty more especially in cheating during examination. This, according to Nelson (1995), is an assault upon the basic integrity and meaning of a university. This study explores the relationship between performance attributions, grade expectation and tendency to cheat during examinations among PGDE students in University of Botswana (UB). This exploratory study using an inferential survey design was carried out by collecting data from 304 PGDE students and analysing these using one-way ANOVA. The results revealed that students' attribution of successful performance significantly influenced their tendency to cheat in examination; failing performance on the other hand, has no significance influence on this variable. Existing discrepancy between expected and earned grade was also found to significantly influenced students' tendency to cheat in an examination among UB PGDE students. These were discussed and recommendations made.
Author A. Ucheagwu ValentineSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 17, pp 165 –174 (2009)More Less
Art is a symbolic means of communication through which man can communicate his inner needs, desires and worries. Children find art a good means of communicating what ordinarily, they may not be able to describe orally. This study was on description of Nigerian children human figure art using Lowenfeld and Brittain (1970) developmental model. The participants were five hundred and twenty six (526) children drawn from population of primary and junior secondary schools from two towns in Northern and Southern Nigeria respectively. They included three hundred and eight (308) females and two and eighteen (218) males. Their ages ranged between 6 to 13 years. Their (18) males. Their ages ranged between 6 to 13 years. Their M age was 9.84 and SD age was 2.08. The analysis of the drawing showed developmental sequences on human figure drawings of children. Every age had their peculiarities on the drawings that differed from that of other ages. The developmental peculiarities were analyzed on such factors as spatial relationships, sexual orientations, socio-cultural and image representations. Implications of the study for early diagnosis and intervention on children were discussed.
Influence of mass media on sexual health behaviour of college students in Nigeria : a study of Lagos State UniveristyAuthor Onipede WusuSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 17, pp 175 –193 (2009)More Less
This paper examines the effects of mass media on the sexual health behaviour of single college students in Nigeria. Simple random sampling procedure was adopted. A total of 300 pre-coded questionnaires were administered in study population. Data analysis reveals that the respondents are more frequently exposed to the internet (75%), TV (77%) and radio (75%). More frequent exposure to print, home video and internet media are significantly related to rising level of sexual activities among female respondents. Frequent exposure to radio (over 3 times) and internet (4 times) are more likely to influence condom use positively among male respondents. Among their female counterparts, more frequent internet utilization (almost twice) is more likely to raise the level of condom use. Thus, an international accord on the content of the mass media, especially on their moral implications for the younger generation is imperative.
Repositioning secretarial curriculum in Polytechnics in Nigeria to meet the challenges of information and communication technologyAuthor Ezinwa B. AzukaSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 17, pp 194 –204 (2009)More Less
Around the world secretarial education is going through serious metamorphosis resulting to a number of challenges. These challenges include the need to respond to the impact of globalization, needs of a new knowledge society, to high social demand and to the rising expectations of stakeholders including government, industry, labour and society. Nigeria has since the 1969 sought to respond positively to these challenges. The major purpose of this study was to examine the current status of secretarial curriculum with a view to repositioning secretarial curriculum in polytechnics in Nigeria to meet the challenges of information and communication technology. The population included Industry-based supervisors, recent graduates and Institution-based supervisors. Results indicated that current secretarial curriculum was out tune with current realities. Instructors lag behind current technological development in the industry and a wide margin exist between theory and practice in secretarial education. This study recommended that secretarial curriculum should be evaluated on a more regular basis to update it in line with student and industry needs. Opportunities should be provided whereby instructors in polytechnics and supervisors in industries interact and compare notes on training needs and industry expectations.
A profile of adolescents' psychoactive substance users' socio-demographics as basis for counselling practice in Nigerian Post-primary institutionsAuthor Christian EwhrudjakporSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 17, pp 205 –219 (2009)More Less
This social survey is aimed at profiling adolescents' psychoactive substance users' socio-demographics as basis for counseling practice in Nigerian post-primary institutions. This is against the backdrop of numerous surveys globally, without the consequent impact on the education of a volatile sample of the population - adolescents. Respondents were 1530 students in school sampled from the Niger-Delta region town of Warri with high prevalence rate of psychoactive substance abuse. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Findings show that; the most used psychoactive substance among students is alcohol, and the significant source of push to use and stay on drugs is the peer group or friends, family type like divorce does determine drug use. These findings and others were discussed comparatively with earlier researchers. It was suggested that policy makers, educators and parents observe their wards on the basis of these findings.
Author Olalekan U. AsikhiaSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 17, pp 220 –243 (2009)More Less
The study investigated the relationship between salespersons behavior and sales performance using a survey data. One thousand, four hundred and fifty (1450) sales persons were sampled of which only 560 copies of the research instrument were usable giving a 38.62 percent response rate. The data was subjected to descriptive statistics analysis and inter-correlational analysis. The study found that experience, capability, respect for tradition, daring (ability and interest in adventure) and intelligence are some of the major requirements for salespersons performance. Also varied life, social justice, moderacy (i.e. avoiding extreme feelings), and accepting one's portion in life i.e. defeatist mindset, and enjoying life affect sales performance negatively. Gross profit is related positively with all the behavioral variables. The findings were discussed and managerial implications as well as recommendations were made.
Source: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 17, pp 244 –254 (2009)More Less
The goal of the study was to examine the influence of some psychosocial variables like personality factors (extraversion, agreeableness, neuroticism, conscientiousness and openness), gender (male and female) and age in predicting university maladjustment. The participants,(M-42 & F-92) were 134 students in the age range 16-30 years randomly selected from a private University in Nigeria. The Big Five Personality inventory (BFI) and University Maladjustment Scale (UMS) were used to collect data. Multiple Regression Analysis, Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and t-test statistics were used to analyze the data. The result showed that all the psychosocial variables jointly predicted 87% of the University maladjustment variance. The implications in terms of screening fresh intakes into universities and minimizing student unrest were discussed.
Author Leonard I. UgwuSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 17, pp 255 –267 (2009)More Less
The study examined the impact of personal attributes on unethical behaviour among employees in various Ministries in Enugu State, Nigeria. A total of one hundred and sixty-seven Ministry employees were administered with a 26-item Unethical Behaviour Questionnaire. It was hypothesized that gender, family size, age, reward system, length of service and job security are not viable predictors of unethical behaviour in workplace environments. Results showed that gender, family size, job insecurity and perceived underpayment are viable predictors of unethical behaviour. Male employees reported that they indulge in unethical behaviour more than their female counterparts, while employees with heavy family size reported more unethical behaviour than employees in normal family size. Employees who perceive their job as insecure indulge in unethical behaviour more than their counterparts who feel that their job is secure. Underpaid employees reported that they indulge in unethical behaviouir more than employees that receive commensurate pay. The findings of this study were discussed in line with the prevailing economic situations.
Author R.N. Ugokwe-OssaiSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 17, pp 268 –275 (2009)More Less
This study was on gender behaviour descriptive analysis of primary nocturnal enuresis in adolescent children using secondary school children. The participants included 50 secondary school children (26 males and 24 females) with M age of 14.89 and SD secondary age of 2.68. A questionnaire instrument designed by the researcher was used to collect the information. A survey research design was employed while chi square contingency and percentage were used in data analysis. The result of the study showed no significant difference on coping pattern applied by males and females in the management of enuresis. However, boys and girls differed significantly on treatment seeking behaviour for enuresis and on the number of wetting per night. The percentage of boys and girls that were worried/disturbed about the enuresis were the same. Discussion of the results together with recommendations were made.
Source: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 17, pp 276 –289 (2009)More Less
This study examined the effects of educational attainment and type of illness on pre-surgery (state) anxiety. The participants (N=100) for the study aged between 20 and 50 years, were pre-surgical patients randomly selected from hospitals in Uyo Metropolis. The Spielberger (1985) State Anxiety Inventory was used as the instrument in this study. A 2 x 2 factorial design was adopted and a 2-way statistical Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) of the data showed that the hypothesis which predicted a statistically significant difference in pre-surgery (state) anxiety between patients with low and high educational attainment was supported F(1,96) = 283.48, P<.01. This indicates that educated patients will express less pre-surgery (state) anxiety than patients with low educational attainment. However, the hypothesis that predicted a statistically significant difference in pre-surgery (state) anxiety between patients with mild and severe illness was not confirmed. Also, the interaction effect of educational attainment and type of illness was not established. It was suggested among other things that medical personnel in hospitals should educate patients more about surgery, anaesthesia and the need for surgical operations. Implications and recommendations were also discussed.