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- Volume 18, Issue 2, 2010
IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal - Volume 18, Issue 2, 2010
Volumes & issues
Volume 18, Issue 2, 2010
Africa-specific factors influencing the decision to adopt work-family policies : exploring the field in NigeriaAuthor Chantal EpieSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 18, pp 1 –20 (2010)More Less
A few organizations in Nigeria have begun to show an interest in work-family policies; however, many others remain indifferent. This article seeks to identify environment-specific factors, not found in the Western literature, influencing organizational leaders in Nigeria to adopt work-family policies. This is important because the family is a key cultural value in Africa threatened by current work intensification, and accelerating change requires an understanding of the variables affecting the change. Qualitative data on nine organizations in four economic sectors are examined to identify likely antecedents of and obstacles to work-family policies. A variable relevant to Nigeria but not found in existing Western literature is the link with a foreign or international partner with a work-family culture. This factor is powerful if it is coupled with a personal impulse from the chief executive and management team, failing which complaints of valued employees may move management to action - a proposition to be tested in further quantitative studies. On the other hand, the case studies support previous findings that organizational culture expressed in management practices and assumptions often constitutes a major obstacle to the adoption and take up of work-family policies.
Corporate social responsibility of multinational oil corporations to host communities in Niger Delta NigeriaAuthor Okoji OlufemiSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 18, pp 21 –34 (2010)More Less
The volatile nature of corporate-community relations, which has meant significant loss in oil revenue for government and decline in corporate profit for multinational oil corporations (MNCs), has elevated the obtaining of a 'social licence to operate' from the periphery to the heart of strategic business thinking within the Nigerian oil industry. As a result, multinational oil corporations (MNCs) have increasingly responded to this challenge by adopting partnership strategies as a means of contributing to community development, building a mutually beneficial relationship with local communities and reinventing themselves as a force for good in their host communities.
This paper critically examines different community development partnership (CDPs) initiatives' undertaken by Exxon Mobil and Elf oil Nigeria Limited within their corporate-community relations strategy in the Niger Delta, Nigeria. Given the huge environmental control costs and the profit-minded nature of Multinational oil corporations, industry self-regulation is unlikely to be effective where it conflicts with the primary objectives of multinationals. Thus, to turn multinational oil corporations into a more positive force for sustainable development, voluntary initiatives must, by virtual necessity, be combined with effective regulatory mechanisms. The paper concludes by exploring the implications for partnerships' initiatives and business-society relations in developing countries.
Teacher characteristics as predictor of attitude towards inclusive education in the Cape Coast Metropolis of GhanaAuthor Francis R. (Jnr.) AckahSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 18, pp 35 –47 (2010)More Less
Teachers are the principal players and actors who make inclusion happen and succeed in any country. Can there be an effective inclusive education practice in Ghana without positive teacher dispositions? Teacher characteristics were examined for their relationship with attitude towards inclusive education in regular schools. With a sample of one hundred and thirty-two (132) professional teachers from 16 Basic schools located in the Cape Coast Metropolis, teacher characteristics such as gender, school location, teaching experience and professional qualification were found to be statistically insignificant with respect to differences in attitude towards inclusive education. Results were supportive of earlier studies on teacher characteristics undertaken in some countries such as UK, US and Haiti. Implications of these findings are discussed and some useful recommendations are provided for teachers, educators and policy makers and implementers in Ghana.
The relative effect of Field Dependent and Field Independent learning styles on the academic performance of undergraduate students of the University of Cape Coast, GhanaSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 18, pp 48 –64 (2010)More Less
The main focus of this study was to find out the relative effect of Field Dependent and Field Independent learning styles and a combination of the two on academic performance of undergraduate students of the University of Cape Coast. The quasi-experimental design was employed for the study.
A total of 77 subjects completed a questionnaire designed by the researchers before they received treatment on techniques of the 3 learning styles in a pre and post-test design.
The formulated hypotheses were tested using the t-test and F ratio at alpha level 0.05. The study revealed that there was significant difference in the academic performance of students who used the three learning styles, namely Field Dependent, Field Independent and a combination of the 2 learning styles.
The academic performance of students who used a combination of the two learning styles was slightly higher than that of the remaining two groups at a significant level of 2.66. The study finally showed that the three learning styles when used effectively enriched academic work.
Barriers and facilitators to research utilization as perceived by business educators in tertiary institutions in NigeriaAuthor Ezinwa B. AzukaSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 18, pp 65 –75 (2010)More Less
The purpose of this study was to examine business educators' perceptions of barriers and facilitators to research utilization. A cross-sectional survey design was used and business educators participated (response rate 89%, n = 180/210). One questionnaire, Research Utilization Questionnaire (RUQ), was used. Data were analyzed using descriptive. The study reported the barriers as follows: Lack of time, staff, access to research information, and research knowledge.; Lack of support to change existing practice, Lack of knowledge of research terminology, ; Inability to understand how to apply findings to practice, Inaccessibility of research finding, Anticipated outcomes of using research, Lack of organizational support to use research, 3.80; Lack of organizational and leadership support, particularly with regard to use providing time to use and conduct research, The study reported facilitators as follows: Support and attitude, like devoted and enthusiastic managers were likely to produce positive attitude towards research utilization, Closer ties between academic and service institutions where educators were encouraged to focus more on teaching their students about research utilization, rather than concentrating on teaching them how to conduct research. From the study it was concluded that one of the most effective ways to increase utilization and to improve the quality and relevance of research is to involve potential users in planning and implementation of the research design itself. From the conclusion it was recommended that supportive leadership and collaboration between colleagues should be encouraged to enhance the utilization of research findings.
Author A.A SulaimanSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 18, pp 76 –86 (2010)More Less
This study examined the problems of students with and without disabilities in inclusive secondary schools in Lagos state. The instrument used to collect data was the Student Problem Inventory (SPI), which measured the respondents' problems from their known judgements. Results revealed that majority of the respondents with disabilities had problems on all the subscales of SPI while the non-disabled respondents had few problems. However, relative to the scores of the respondents without disabilities on the other problem areas they scored higher on Family, Financial, and Academic subscale, of SPI. This was explained as the probable effect of poverty. Nonetheless a statistically significant difference was found between the problem of respondents' with disabilities and those without disabilities. This finding was attributed to the effect of disability, poverty and inappropriate practice of inclusive education. Based on the findings, recommendations were made.
Entrepreneurship education and undergraduates' attitude to self-employment : a case study of a Nigerian UniversitySource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 18, pp 87 –107 (2010)More Less
Entrepreneurship Education (EE) and undergraduates' attitude of Obafemi Awolowo University Ile-Ife, Nigeria, (OAU), to self-employment were examined. Over one thousand students enrolled for the special electives in 2006/2007 academic session. These students were administered with questionnaire, pre- and post-entrepreneurship education. Out of these, six hundred students were randomly selected as the sample size, consisting of three hundred each for both pre-intervention and post-intervention exposure respectively. A control group which consisted of 156 students, chosen randomly , was also set up to compare the perception of students who were exposed to EE as against those who were not exposed to EE Data generated were analyzed using simple frequency and percentage tables. The study revealed that about 94% of respondents indicated their preference for self-employment after the post-intervention exposure as against 14.7% of respondents from the control group. Comparing the results of the pre-and post-intervention survey of exposing undergraduates to EE as against the result from the control group, it was observed that EE had great impression on those exposed. Furthermore, the various responses from the post intervention survey showed that the experience of EE has enriched their knowledge on starting and owning business, In addition, it has also changed their perception about self-employment. Recommendations and implementation for including EE into tertiary curricula were also given.
An integrative model of individual predisposition and contextual factors of high-tech entrepreneurial opportunity recognitionAuthor Sunday Samson BabalolaSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 18, pp 108 –126 (2010)More Less
This paper presents a conceptual model of the relationships between individuals' dispositional and contextual factors in opportunity recognition. It argues that most literatures on entrepreneurial opportunity recognition focus on one or two contextual domains, thus ignoring the nature and dynamics of high-tech opportunity recognition. We propose therefore that full understanding of opportunity recognition process requires individual's idiosyncratic nature.
Specifically, our integrative model makes connection between individuals' personality factor of openness and the contextual factors. The contextual factors reflect human capital of education and experience, motivational resources representing self-efficacy and initiative and networking behaviour influencing opportunity recognition. This model has implications for research in high-tech entrepreneurial opportunity recognition and for policies designed to increase entrepreneurial behaviour.
Source: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 18, pp 127 –136 (2010)More Less
The psychometric characteristics of the 24-item perceived youth empowerment scale were examined in a Nigerian sample of 180 undergraduates (62 men and 119 women). Results indicated a three-factor solution, consistent with those from other studies. The two factors accounted for 41.6% of the total variance in the solution. The internal consistency reliability for the entire scale (.89) was considered conceptually meaningful. This result suggests that the perceived youth empowerment measure is valid and could be used to access the extent to which youth perceived themselves as being empowered.
Effects of felt obligation on occupational burnout among employees of post-consolidation banks in Akure, NigeriaAuthor Bolanle OgungbamilaSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 18, pp 137 –149 (2010)More Less
Most researches on post-consolidation in the Nigerian banking industry focused more on how it affects the health of banks and employees' job attitudes, and productivity. Less research attention has been paid on the health of bank employees in the post-consolidation era. This study investigated the extent to which felt obligation affect occupational burnout of post-consolidation bank employees. Data were collected from 162 (89 males; 73 females) post-consolidation bank employees. The correlation results indicated that felt obligation was positively related with occupational burnout. Hierarchical regression revealed that felt obligation significantly predicted occupational burnout such that high felt obligation led to an increased level of occupational burnout. It was concluded that post-consolidation competitions among banks led to an increased level of felt obligation in bank employees, which translated to a high level of occupational burnout.
Context, moral orientation and self-esteem : impacting the moral development of senior high school studentsAuthor Mumuni ThompsonSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 18, pp 150 –169 (2010)More Less
The purpose of this study was to compare moral orientation and a measure of self-esteem with the degree of consideration given to certain contextual elements of the moral dilemmas presented. One research question guided the study. The sample consisted of 130 respondents comprising 60 second year students and 70 third year students of Bawku senior high school. The researcher created a 150-item questionnaire, using the Measure of Moral Orientation (MMO); Liddell, 1990, the Self-Esteem Scale (Rosenberg, 1965), and researcher developed contextual scales that followed each of the MMO dilemmas. The purpose of these items was to assess the importance of significant relationships; situational factors / circumstances; peer culture and influence; cost-benefit analysis of consequences; institutional values; and religion, faith and spirituality on moral decision-making and motivation. Statistically significant findings were established for the degree of consideration scales (relationships, circumstances, peers, cost-benefits, institutional values and spirituality) as compared with the MMO overall care, overall justice, and self-care and self-justice scores. All other comparisons did not reach a level of statistical significance.
Relationship between perceived self-efficacy and information literacy among library and information science undergraduates in a Nigerian University of EducationSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 18, pp 172 –191 (2010)More Less
Information Literacy is a critical input in today's learning environment and indeed for lifelong learning. Information literacy could be contingent upon an intrinsic element such as self-efficacy belief. Thus, this study investigates the relationship between perceived self-efficacy and information literacy among library and information science (LIS) undergraduates in Tai Solarin University of Education, Ijebu - Ode Nigeria (TASUED). Ex-post facto research design was adopted. Using total enumeration technique, data were gathered from all the 108 LIS undergraduates in TASUED using an instrument tagged Self-efficacy and Information literacy questionnaire (SILQ) with reliability values: (α = 0.78) information literacy and (α = 0.75) self-efficacy. All questionnaires were returned, however 100 (93%) were found usable. The study found out that respondents had high self-efficacy beliefs on more items on the scale; the level of information literacy was high in eight of the fifteen indicators on the scale. Perceived self-efficacy had a significant relationship with information literacy (r=0.329; p<0.01). There was no significant difference in the information literacy of LIS undergraduates based on gender (t=2.26 df=98; p<0.05). There is significant difference in perceived self-efficacy based on gender (t=0.085; df=98; p>0.05). The study recommends standardized information literacy competency training and periodic morale boosting orientation and re-orientation programs for the undergraduates.
Influence of Shari'ah on socio-cultural and economic development of marketing practices in North Western NigeriaAuthor Haliru BalaSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 18, pp 192 –209 (2010)More Less
This study investigated the socio-economic influence of Shari'ah marketing practices in Northwestern Nigeria for security and Nigeria's development. The study was conducted in Jigawa, kaduna, Kano, Katsina, Kebbi, Sokoto and Zamfara States of Nigeria being the core of Shari'ah State. All the states have expansion on Shari'ah court system except Kaduna State. The data were obtained from both primary and secondary source. A multi-stage random sampling technique was used in selecting 1,392 respondents for the study comprising 180 management staff, 460 traders, 60 staff of production section and 692 consumers from a study population of 2,000,915. The questionnaire was validated by a panel of experts in the area of Economics, Political Science, Sociology, Shari'ah Law, Arabic and Islamic Studies. Information on socio-economic rules and regulations of Shari'ah such as fair price, hoarding, adulteration, price control, prohibited products and counterfeiting were measured using Likert Scale. The data generated were subjected to both descriptive and inferential statistical techniques of analysis. The results revealed that marketing practices variables such as product, production, societal marketing, marketing orientation and selling practices were correlated with socio-economic rules and regulations of Shari'ah in terms of fair price, hoarding, adulteration, price control and prohibited products indicated by Pearson Correlation Analysis. A significant relationship was revealed between Shari'ah socio-economic rules and regulations and marketing practices (r = 0.87; p< 0.001). The study concluded that Shari'ah socio-economic rules and regulations have significant influence on marketing practices which will affect the development of marketing strategies and products.
Author Akanji Rafiu BankoleSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 18, pp 210 –222 (2010)More Less
The study examined the joint and relative effects of emotional intelligence and communication skill on conflict management behaviour of labour leaders in Lagos State, Nigeria. A descriptive survey research design was adopted using questionnaire as the main instrument. 180 respondents (labour leaders) were purposively selected from ten (10) randomly selected industrial unions in Lagos State. Data collected were analysed using multiple regressions at 0.05 alpha levels. The findings indicated significant composite effect of communication skill and emotional intelligence on conflict management behaviour of labour leaders (R= .458; Adjusted R2 = .201 (20.1%); F (2,177) = 23.446, P < 0.05). In addition, the result revealed that communication skill has a stronger significant effect on conflict management behaviour of the respondents (B = .212, t = 4.747, p <. 05). Based on the findings, it was recommended among other things, that government should organize intervention training programme on the two skills for labour leaders and that labour leaders be encouraged to update themselves educationally in order to enhance their communication skills.
Source: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 18, pp 223 –235 (2010)More Less
The study sampled 200 early adolescents (120 males and 80 females) using a developed and tested model that provided a causal explanation on Five-Factor Model of personality (neuroticism, extraversion, openness to expression, agreeableness, and conscientiousness) and gender. Data collection was done through the use of two valid and reliable instruments (NEO Five-Factor Inventory=0.83; Social Reactivity Scale=0.72). The data were analyzed using multiple regression and path analysis in order to estimate the coefficient of structural equations of the hypothesized model. Results from the analysis indicated that the most meaningful causal model was tenable. And that the six predicting variables accounted for 33.5% (direct effect) and 66.5% (indirect effect) of the variability in the criterion. Although, the significant causal influence of the Five-Factor Model and gender investigated suggested that early adolescents' rebelliousness could be predicted using the variables, openness to expression and agreeableness have the most direct causal influence on early adolescents' rebelliousness. The implications of the findings for counselling, education and development of early adolescents were discussed.
Author Agatha OgwoSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 18, pp 236 –252 (2010)More Less
The end of the 20th century ushered in wars and armed conflict between nations and civil strife within nations. War as used in this paper refers to armed conflict between two or more governments or states. Report shows that more than the world's children are suffering extreme deprivations from poverty, war and HIV / AIDS and these are conditions that effectively deny children a childhood and hinder the development of nations. (UNICEF, 2004). Among many countries that have experienced one form of conflict, this paper tried to review the experiences of children during armed conflict in Nepal, Columbia and Nigeria. The review also delved into the impact of armed conflict on health, nutrition and education of children and further, outlined some international research findings that reflect the Psychological health of children during armed conflict. In the concluding part, the Psychological implications conflicts on children were outlined and recommendations were given.
Source: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 18, pp 253 –269 (2010)More Less
Motorcycles have constituted a significant proportion of modal choice of commuters in many cities in Nigeria. Motorcycles transport possess several unique features which have lead to their general acceptance as a source of employment among the urban poor and as alternative transport solution to the problems of commuting in Nigerian cities. In recent time, the safety of motorcycle operators and their users has become a major concern of stakeholders as a result of the increase in road accidents resulting from motorcycles transportation.
This paper examines the perceptions of the risk associated with the use of motorcycles as public transport among commuters in three cities (Ado-Ekiti, Ile-Ife and Ondo) of south western Nigeria. Data used for the study were collected through stratified sampling techniques from six hundred and sixty-five users of commercial motorcycles through the use of questionnaires. The responses derived were subjected to non-parametric analysis and Analysis of variance.
Findings show that similarities exist among the sampled cities in terms of sex,age group, motorcycles related accident experiences and safety perception among users of commercial motorcycles. The result of the Chi-square analysis (x2=22.369, p<0.05) shows a significant dependence between risk perceptions of users with motorcycles accident experience and the level of their risk awareness. Analysis of variance (F=6.416, p=0.002) shows a similarity in the level of risk perceptions among three cities.
The paper concluded by advocating the need for government to enforce the law on the use of protective devices by both operators and users. Creation of separate lanes for motorcyclists and other non motorized transport users is equally recommended.
Self-esteem, perceived control and communal relationship strength as predictors of emotional distress in Nigerian university studentsAuthor Esther Foluke AkinsolaSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 18, pp 270 –289 (2010)More Less
This study attempted to determine whether self-esteem, perceived control and communal relationship strength would predict emotional distress in Nigerian university students. 148 students from a Christian university and 158 students from a Secular university responded to measures of the variables listed above. It was hypothesized that: (i) Students from the Christian university would show higher levels of self-esteem, perceived control and communal relationship strength and lower levels of emotional distress than Students from the Secular university; (ii) There would be significant correlations between the variables; (iii) The listed variables would predict emotional distress in the students. The results of the study provide partial support for the hypotheses and showed that (i) Christian university students showed higher levels of communal strength towards their best friend and overall communal strength; (ii) Perceived control predicted emotional distress in the students; (iii) When all the students were considered together perceived control was the strongest predictor of emotional distress while self-esteem was the strongest predictor of emotional distress for Christian university students.
Influence of social support, self-efficacy, and personality on the general health of retirees in Lagos, NigeriaAuthor O.A AdegbiteSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 18, pp 290 –302 (2010)More Less
The influence of social support, work overload, and parity on psychological well-being of pregnant career women was investigated. Retired civil servants (N475) attending monthly pensioners' meeting in Lagos were selected following multi-stage sampling. The survey adopted a cross sectional design. MANOVA, regression and t-test statistical analysis revealed that personality (R2=.11;F(1,474)=6.38;P<.05), and social support predicted general health status (R2=.15;F(3,472)=2.65;P<.05. Social support significantly influenced two dimensions of general health status; social dysfunction (F(1) = 12.009) p = .000) and depression (F (1) = 13. 119, p = 000). Self-efficacy significantly influenced two dimensions of general health status, somatic symptoms (F (1) = 60.943, P = .000) and depression, (f (1) = 53.255, p = .000). There was no significant difference between participants with high and low self efficacy on general health status (t (473) = -.167; P>.05). In conclusion, personality, social support and self efficacy jointly predict general health status among retirees, but only personality and social support have significant independent influence. Employees and human resource managers should be more conscious of the psychosocial problems that affect the general health of retirees. Preparation for retirement should commence at the point of employment, with reliable retirement planning schemes.