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- Volume 19, Issue 1, 2011
IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal - Volume 19, Issue 1, 2011
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Volume 19, Issue 1, 2011
Emotional well-being of orphans and vulnerable children in Ogun State orphanages Nigeria : predictors and implications for policySource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 19, pp 1 –18 (2011)More Less
Previous research has found strong links between the emotional well-being of children and young people to their personal, social development and academic performance. This study examined stigmatisation, sexual involvement and school enrolment as predictors of emotional well-being of orphans and vulnerable children Ogun State orphanages, Nigeria.
A survey design was used and convenience sampling technique was used to select participants for the study. A total of 100 respondents (59 males and 41 females) who had lost one or both parents to AIDS participated in the study by completing self-report questionnaires. A 2x2 analysis of variance (ANOVA) and independent sample T-test statistical analyses were utilized to analyze the data collected. Findings indicate that 46% of the OVC reported having scary dreams or nightmares, 44% often have trouble falling asleep, 65% often feel unhappy, 11% always feel happy, while 51% are sometimes happy. 68% often prefer being alone, 57% always feel worried while 49% often engage in fighting. However, 48% of the OVC are always hopeful. 35 participants -16 boys and 19 girls (35%) of the OVC have been involved in sexual intercourse. Of the OVC that have had sexual experience 11 (11%), 6 males and 7 females were involved in sexual intercourse against their will. OVC who were sexually involved experience more emotional distress than OVC who were not sexually involved. Also OVC who are high on stigmatization also experience more emotional distress than OVC who are low on stigmatization. The implications of these findings were discussed and recommendations made in the study.
Author M.E. EgharevbaSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 19, pp 19 –39 (2011)More Less
This paper seek to argue that the underlie maxim behind any reform in any given social structure is to provide a sound collective framework that will lead to improvements in the social welfare of the aggregate people in the society. Thus, the role of the state as constituting the engine of growth and development of the country in this regard cannot be overemphasized. States like social system is an entity made up of interconnected and interrelated parts, be it political, economic, cultural, family, educational etc, in which each part affect the other in some way and the system as a whole. It therefore follows that if the state must survive and be an active catalyst in driving development, its various parts must have some degree of fit or compatibility on the basis of value consensus, where every members of society agree on certain definable ethos of individual liberty, freedom, discipline, probity, accountability etc enshrined in the various parts of the social structure of the society to shape and guide our collective behaviours, attitude and motivation. The paper further emphasizes that development that is sustainable can only arise when there is a revolutionary change in the institutions of society and economy that brings about change in attitudes and behaviours of the state in promoting and protecting the public good and not one bent on regulating the status-quo. The paper finally concludes on the premise that for development to thrive, a nation must be driven by a philosophy of internalized, pragmatic collective values that is highly supportive of hard-work and enterprise and a developmental state that is manned by a highly skilled technocratic bureaucracy and a close cooperation between major economic groupings such as agriculture, business and labour, and not values that reflect goals and aspirations formulated by the governing class for society at large.
Dimensions of emotional maltreatment of school adolescents at home : implications for counselling practiceAuthor A.M. GesindeSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 19, pp 40 –55 (2011)More Less
Human beings at birth are naturally bequeathed to express their pleasant and unpleasant dispositions to people and life events around them. Unpleasant feeling is an indication of emotional maltreatment by significant others. The emotional maltreatment originating from parents/guardian was the subject of investigation of this study. The frequency of occurrence of seven dimensions of emotional abuse and their influence on gender and family type bases were examined among four hundred and eighty (215 males and 265 females) adolescents purposively selected from fifteen private secondary schools in Ota, Nigeria. Questionnaire on Seven Dimensions of Emotional Maltreatment at Home (QSDEMH) developed and validated by the researcher was employed for data generation. Two research questions and two research hypotheses guided the direction of the study. The results indicated that in order of pervasiveness isolating tops the list of emotional dimensions (x=9.62) while corrupting (x=7.15) was the least. Further analysis showed that there was no significance difference on gender basis (t-cal =1.56<t-cri =1.96; df =478, P>0.05); while there was a significant difference on family type (monogamy and polygamy) basis (t-cal =-5.74<t-cri=-1.96; df =478, P<0.05). The implications of these findings on counselling profession were discussed.
Source: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 19, pp 56 –69 (2011)More Less
The impact of population growth on environment and its implication for survival is an important issue. Although considerable attention has been paid to this problem but systematic studies have been inadequate. Rapid population growth and economic development and daily demand for natural resources for domestic and industrial use are growing at an increasing rate, especially in an urban centre. This has led to the disruption of natural cycles of land resources which is undermining the sustainability of the ecosystems. Thus, sustainable development can only be pursued if population size and growth are in harmony with the changing productive potentials of the ecosystem. The purpose of this study is to discuss the implication of Nigerian population growth on environmental sustainability.
Relationship between psycho-demographic factors and perception of corruption by local government civil servants in Osun State, NigeriaSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 19, pp 70 –83 (2011)More Less
Even though global, corruption is assuming a worrisome dimension in Nigeria. This study investigated the relationship between psychological and demographic factors in predicting the perception of corruption. The cross-sectional correlational study included 600 civil servants; 320 males and 280 females following multi-stage sampling. A 67-item questionnaire was used for data collection. Data analysis included Pearson Product Moment Correlation and regression. Results showed that there was significant positive relationship between fraudulent intent (r = 0.671, P<.05), personality (r = 0.631, P<.05), fear of crime (r = 0.491, P<.05), need for achievement (r = 0.486, P<.05), and perception of corruption. There was significant relationship between age of the respondents (r = 0.385, P<.05) and perception of corruption. There was no significant relationship between level of education (r = 0.049, P>.05), socio-economic status (r = 0.041, P>.05), length of service (r = 0.020, P>.05), and perception of corruption. This highlights the importance of fraudulent intent, personality and age as factors critical to the understanding of an individual's perception of corruption, suggesting the need for national re-orientation and mobilization to re-awaken positive cognitive appraisal and response to corruption.
Influence of personality types and academic procastination on the academic achievements of senior secondary school adolescents in Ibadan MetropolisAuthor O.J. AdesinaSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 19, pp 84 –92 (2011)More Less
This study examined the influence of personality type and academic procrastination on the Academic Achievement of Senior Secondary School students in Ibadan metropolis. Sample consisted of 200 senior secondary school students in Ibadan metropolis. Two research instruments were used: namely academic procrastination scale and the Big - 5 factor scale. The reliability co-efficient of the instruments were 0.76 and 0.72 and validated by the authors respectively. Three null hypotheses were formulated and tested at 0.05 level of significant. The results revealed in H01 that there is a significant difference in the personality types and academic procrastination of senior secondary school adolescent students. Also H02 revealed a significant difference in the gender academic achievement and H03 also revealed a significant difference in age. Recommendations and conclusion were made based on the findings.
Influence of academic procrastination and personality types on academic achievement and efficacy of in-school adolescents in IbadanSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 19, pp 93 –113 (2011)More Less
The study examined the influence of academic procrastination and personality types on the academic achievement and efficacy of In-school adolescents in Ibadan, Oyo state. Two hundred participants were randomly selected from four schools in Akinyele Local Government area of Oyo state. Multiple regression analysis was employed to determine the relationship among the variables as well as the joint and relative contributions of the independent variables to the prediction of the dependent variables. The results showed positive relationship between extraversion, openness, agreeableness, conscientiousness and academic achievement of the students. Extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness were also found to correlate with the efficacy of in-school adolescents. A joint contribution of the independent variables on the dependent variables was recorded for this study. This study, also conclusively found that conscientiousness, openness, extroversion and agreeableness contributed relatively to the prediction of academic achievement and efficacy of the in-school adolescents. Implications for adolescent counseling are discussed in the study.
Religiosity as correlates of some selected psychological disorders among psychiatric outpatients in Lagos StateSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 19, pp 114 –128 (2011)More Less
This study investigated Religious correlates of some selected Psychological Distress (Depression, Anxiety, Somatization, Paranoid Ideation and Psychotic Disorder) using Psychiatric outpatients in Lagos State Hospital, Lagos. It also examined gender differences in the level of selected psychological distress and religiosity. Analysis of the data gathered through the use of four questionnaires: Biographical Information Questionnaire, SCL-90, Religious Affiliation Scale (RAS) and Religious Trust Scale (RTS) with Pearson's product moment statistics; t-test and one-way Analysis of Variance found that that Somatization (SCL_a), paranoid ideation (SCL_h) and Psychoticism (SCL_i) have positive significant association with RTS, RAS and Religiosity(RAS and RTS) while depression (SCL_d), and anxiety (SCL_e) have negative significant correlation with Religiosity and its two dimensions. In addition, the result of the analysis showed that females obtained higher scores than males in the measures of anxiety, depression, somatisation and paranoid ideation. However, the mean difference is not statistically significant in the measures of anxiety; high Religious group was also found to have lower mean scores than their counterparts with low levels of Religiosity in all the selected measures of psychological distress (i.e. Somatization-SCL_a, depression-SCL_d, anxiety -SCL_e, paranoid ideation -SCL_h and Psychoticism SCL_i).
Thus, this finding established that religiosity is associated with improved psychological health, and lower incidence of psychological distress.
The place of interest in pre-service English teachers' choice of occupation : a study of selected Nigerian college of education studentsSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 19, pp 129 –144 (2011)More Less
The study was carried out on the basis of the fact established in extant literature that the impact of well motivated teachers right from the Universal Basic Education level can stop to the evil of perennial mass failure of Nigerian candidates in English language examinations. Two hundred pre-service English language teachers were randomly sampled from four colleges of education in southwestern Nigeria. A self-constructed thirteen-item questionnaire was validated and used to collect data. The analysis of the data revealed that (i) a much greater percentage of the pre-service teachers in the colleges of education in the southwestern part of Nigeria do not see teaching as a profession (ii) most Nigerian pre-service English teachers in colleges of education found themselves in teacher preparation programmes as a result of frustration rather than interest (iii) majority of the English language teachers would opt out of the profession at the next available opportunity (iv) the pre-service teachers do not believe in their prospective students (v) most of the pre-service teachers do not have adequate interest in teaching English language. These imply that when such people get into actual classroom practice, they cannot effect the much-needed positive change.
Author A.M. LawalSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 19, pp 145 –158 (2011)More Less
There is no doubt that many groups are becoming a great concern in the spread of HIV infection in Nigeria. Young people still remains a high risk group in the spread of HIV and AIDS in the country. High sexual risk behaviours have been reported among young people in spite of the various interventions being put in place in the country. It becomes a great concern if mental health status has something to do with high sexual risk behaviour in this population. For a more specific and dynamic intervention in reducing cases of HIV and AIDS in Nigeria, the study therefore examines depression, anxiety and stress as mental health variables influencing sexual risk behaviours among young people.
A structured questionnaire was used for data collection. Using ex-post facto design, 450 (258 males & 192 females) young people in Ibadan were sampled in the study. Data were analyzed using t-test for independent samples to examine how depression, anxiety and stress levels directly influence sexual risk behaviours among young people in Nigeria.
For the Nigerian young people, results showed that those who are low in depression are less involved in sexual risk behaviour (t=4.71; df=361; P<.05). Young people who are less anxious are found to be low in sexual risk behaviour (t=2.89; df=369; P<.05). Similarly, young people who are less stressed tend to engage less in sexual risk behaviours (t=2.26; df=363; P<.05). However, there is no gender difference in sexual risk behaviours of young males and females in Nigeria (t=0.56; df=448; P>.05).
Young males and females in Nigeria still engage in high sexual risk behaviour; and this could be connected to their mental health status. A more dynamic STD/HIV/AIDS intervention programme should consider mental health variables such as depression, anxiety and stress associated with sexual risk behaviours among young people in Nigeria.
Relationship between organizational culture, leadership style and job satisfaction in a Nigerian manufacturing organizationAuthor M.O. OlasupoSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 19, pp 159 –176 (2011)More Less
This study investigated the relationship between organizational culture, leadership style and job satisfaction in a Nigerian private manufacturing organization. The study population consisted of employees of International Brewery Plc, Ilesha and the study sample consisted of 80% of the workforce at the Brewery comprising 150 respondents in ratio 5:9:1 of the junior staff cadre, senior staff cadre and management cadre respectively. Three standardized psychological instruments namely: Organizational Culture Scale, Supervisory Behaviour Description Questionnaire and Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire were used to collect data from the respondents.
The results showed that the level of employees' job satisfaction in the brewery was high as there were more satisfied employees at the brewery than dissatisfied ones. The dominant culture was competitive, and the prevailing leadership style was democratic. Results showed no significant relationship between organizational culture and job satisfaction (R2 = .006; p>.05). It also found no significant relationship between leadership style and job satisfaction (R2 = .012; p>.05.)
The study concluded that organizational culture and leadership style had no influence on job satisfaction.
Source: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 19, pp 177 –186 (2011)More Less
The study was on the role of effort in stimulating luck. And its parapsychology implications for achievement were also examined. The Senior Football World Tournament organized by the Federation of International Football Association (FIFA) in South Africa from 11th June 2010 to 11th July 2010 was used for the study. Consequently, the study investigated the null hypothesis that "luck is not a chance event, but an achieved resultant effect of goal-directed effort". The design of the study was an observational design, while the statistics was Chi-square. The data attained ordinal measurement by counting the number of shots on target as efforts, and goals scored from such efforts as luck. The data were of primary source from two independent categories of matches. One category was made up of teams that made higher efforts on the target (goalpost) to score goals. The other category was made up of teams that made lesser efforts on the target (goal post) to score goals. The unwanted variables in the study were controlled through quality control, as only the matches watched by the researcher were sampled for the study. This helped the researcher to have first-hand information of the matches. Again, elimination was use to control for poor officiating as controversial matches were not used in the study. These control measures helped to vouch the influence of efforts in achieving luck (goal scoring). The null hypothesis, which was tested at the critical values of df =1, X2 = 1.1728< 3.84 @ P<.05, was accepted. This confirmed that luck is effort induced, and not a chance event. This entails that luck is an achieved resultant effect of goal-directed efforts. In essence, the more efforts people make to be successful, the more luck opportunities they stimulate. It is therefore recommended that individuals should develop the cognition for making and depending more on efforts than luck. Again, individuals should support hope, faith, and prayer with well motivated efforts.
Author M. EzenwaSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 19, pp 187 –194 (2011)More Less
The study investigated the incidence of of psychopathology among street hawkers in Enugu metropolis, capital of Enugu State, Nigeria. 200 randomly drawn participants aged between 12 and 17 years, made of 100 hawkers (50 male and 50 female) as the experimental group and 100 non-hawkers (50 male and 50 female) as the control were measured on Awaritefe Psychological Index form C. This is a 51 item personality inventory designed to screen psychopathological symptoms in normal population and has a positive correlation coefficient of .49 at P. < 05 with Maudsley Personality Inventory. The hawkers were drawn from four major layouts namely New Haven, Obiagu, Abakpa- Nike and Uwani all in Enugu while the non-hawkers were senior secondary 1, 2 & 3 students of University of Nigeria Secondary School Enugu Campus. Results showed a significant difference, P< .001, between hawkers and non-hawkers in manifestation of psychopathology but this did not differ according to gender. The implications of the findings were discussed.
Author D.O. IgbokweSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 19, pp 195 –225 (2011)More Less
Somatization of emotional distress, the manifestation of psychological problems in somatic form, is widespread in Nigeria and there are shortcomings in the use of foreign methods to assess this disorder in Nigeria (Ebigbo & Ihezue, 1981). Ebigbo developed the Enugu Somatization Scale (ESS) in 1982 to measure this but there was need for a factorial examination of the scale. 1204 participants with ages between 10 to 79 years with mean age of 29.83 years and a standard deviation of 11.44 of which 635 are stressed normal participants and 569 are hospital patients were selected using the 65 item ESS. The data was subjected to the Statistical analysis using Principal Component Analysis and Oblim Rotation. One valid factor with 51 items emerged making the ESS a one-dimensional (unidimentional) scale which measures somatization only. The reliability analysis yielded a Cronbach Alpha coefficient of 0.932, and a standardized item alpha of 0.936 estimated its internal consistency. Also, an intrinsic validity of 0.9654 was observed. This study reduced the items on the ESS from 65 to 51 valid items and established the factorial validity of the ESS.
Early intervention as a catalyst for effective early childhood education in Ghana - how can this work?Source: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 19, pp 226 –239 (2011)More Less
Early childhood intervention is an essential contributor and catalyst for the development of a culture of positive attitudes towards children with disabilities in a country like Ghana. Intervention could begin at the early years or early childhood education level. Does early intervention make a difference in the lives of children whose development is delayed or abnormal in Ghana? How would we respond if our children required early intervention to fare well at the early childhood centre? The urgency or disconcerting feeling is that something is wrong and something responsive must be done! As Ghana strides towards mainstreaming early childhood education in the quest to attain Education For All (EFA) and Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), an integrated, inclusive and effective early intervention programme becomes inevitable for children with disabilities. This would provide mutual benefits for children with disabilities, parents and families, educators and professionals and the society at large. How can this work in Ghana?
Impact of locus of control, religiosity and exercise on depression in Northern Nigerian Teaching Hospital. Leaders in Lagos State, NigeriaSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 19, pp 240 –254 (2011)More Less
The study assesses the combined effects of locus of control, religiosity, and physical exercise constructs on the global health outcome in depressed patients at the Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital Shika, Zaria.
A cross-sectional study design was used; fifteen (15) participants were purposively selected from diagnosed depressed patients attending follow up clinic at the department of Psychiatry, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital Shika, Zaria.There is a positive relationship between all measures, religiosity and locus of control (.62), Becks depression inventory and locus of control (.92), Becks depression inventory and religiosity (.67). the mean BDI score dropped to 10.67 after treatment, a high internal LOC to 11.0 also after treatment and an increase in REL to 11.30 after treatment.
Attribution patterns, attitude and knowledge of HIV/AIDS on sexual behavioural change among students of Covenant University Ota, NigeriaSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 19, pp 255 –269 (2011)More Less
Sexual behavioural change is central to HIV/AIDS control programme. This study was carried out among students (n = 603; average age = 18.9) of Covenant University, Nigeria. The study was designed to examine the impact of attribution patterns, attitude and knowledge of HIV/AIDS on sexual behavioural change. Three hypotheses were raised. Regression analysis, analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Pearson's r were used to analyze the data. The results show that attribution patterns and attitude towards HIV did not influence sexual behavioural change. In effect, knowledge of HIV was the best predictor of sexual behavioural change of respondents. The study also revealed that there was a significant effect of gender on sexual behavioural change of respondents while there was no significant effect of age. Another result shows that there was a strong correlation between perceived benefits and all the other variables. Fourteen percent (14%) of the respondents are sexually active, 520 or 86% indicated they are not sexually active. Eighty-nine percent (89%) of the respondents do not know of anyone who is HIV positive or died from AIDS while 11% knows someone who is HIV positive or had died from AIDS related complications. This study shows that young people using the perceived benefits variable in the Health Belief Model (HBM) coupled with adequate knowledge of HIV knowledge have the power and ability to change their risky sexual behaviour.
Effects of two psychological techniques in improving academic performance of secondary school students in mathematicsSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 19, pp 270 –279 (2011)More Less
Poor academic performance of students in Mathematics has been of great concern to educationists, researchers, parents and teachers and calls for a concerted effort at remediation. The study set to determine the efficacy of goal-setting and cognitive restructuring in improving the academic performance of secondary school students in Mathematics. The design was a pre-test, post-test control group quasi-experimental design. The sample consisted of 120 students aged 15 to 18 years purposively sampled from a randomly selected co-educational public secondary school in Ilorin metropolis. Participants were randomly assigned to three experimental groups: Goal-Setting; Cognitive Restructuring (treatment groups) and Control Programme (placebo). A validated Mathematics Ability Test (MAT) was administered to the three groups before and after the experimental programme which was packaged into 8 weekly workshop sessions. Analysis of covariance with Scheffe post-hoc measure was employed for the data analysis. When the treatment group was compared with the control group in an attempt to treat analysis, there were significant differences in the Mathematics performance ability of the three groups. Those in the treatment groups reported improved Mathematics performance ability than their counterparts in the control group. Lack of behavioural effect on the control group could be linked to differential quality of delivery of intervention. The treatment gain was however not mediated by participants' gender. Both male and female students benefited maximally from the intervention programmes. The result is an indication that students' Mathematical ability can be improved using psychological strategies and these should be factored in secondary school Mathematics curriculum.
Author C. UwasombaSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 19, pp 280 –297 (2011)More Less
Using a socio-psychological approach, the essay explores Fyodor Dostoyevsky's Crime and Punishment. The exploration highlights Dostoyevsky's heavy reliance on the use of psychological realism, showing in the process the intricate interplay between psychology, sociology and literature. In the novel, the reader comes across the merging of the philosophies of Hegel, Nietzsche, Sartre, Kierkegaard, Heidegger and Marx.
The essay concludes that Crime and Punishment is a mixture of four novels: the psychological novel, the novel of detection, the novel of character, and the philosophical Four voices, namely: voices of the existentialists, Marxian, Freudian, and Christianity are intertwined in the novel. Fyodor appears to be saying that the world is meaningless but it is through the Christian faith meaning could come to life.