n IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal - Role of effort in stimulating luck : its parapsychology implications for achievement
|Article Title||Role of effort in stimulating luck : its parapsychology implications for achievement|
|© Publisher:||IFE Centre for Psychological Studies (ICPS)|
|Journal||IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal|
|Author||O.C. Nwankwo, I. Ugokwe-Ossai and C.C. Nweke|
|Publication Date||Mar 2011|
|Pages||177 - 186|
|Keyword(s)||Anambra State University, Effort, Luck, Nnamdi Azikiwe University and Parapsychology achievement|
The study was on the role of effort in stimulating luck. And its parapsychology implications for achievement were also examined. The Senior Football World Tournament organized by the Federation of International Football Association (FIFA) in South Africa from 11th June 2010 to 11th July 2010 was used for the study. Consequently, the study investigated the null hypothesis that "luck is not a chance event, but an achieved resultant effect of goal-directed effort". The design of the study was an observational design, while the statistics was Chi-square. The data attained ordinal measurement by counting the number of shots on target as efforts, and goals scored from such efforts as luck. The data were of primary source from two independent categories of matches. One category was made up of teams that made higher efforts on the target (goalpost) to score goals. The other category was made up of teams that made lesser efforts on the target (goal post) to score goals. The unwanted variables in the study were controlled through quality control, as only the matches watched by the researcher were sampled for the study. This helped the researcher to have first-hand information of the matches. Again, elimination was use to control for poor officiating as controversial matches were not used in the study. These control measures helped to vouch the influence of efforts in achieving luck (goal scoring). The null hypothesis, which was tested at the critical values of df =1, X2 = 1.1728< 3.84 @ P<.05, was accepted. This confirmed that luck is effort induced, and not a chance event. This entails that luck is an achieved resultant effect of goal-directed efforts. In essence, the more efforts people make to be successful, the more luck opportunities they stimulate. It is therefore recommended that individuals should develop the cognition for making and depending more on efforts than luck. Again, individuals should support hope, faith, and prayer with well motivated efforts.
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