n IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal - Effects of extraneous variables on of choking-susceptible university athletes




The study investigates effects of extraneous variables on performance of choking-susceptible University elite and non-elite athletes. The study used a pretest-posttest design. A total of 120 males and females athletes were used as participants in the first stage (±=1.15 or .36), of which sixty participants (30 elite and 30 non-elite athletes) were drawn from the pull (n = 74). Two instruments were used at the initial stage: Self-consciousness scale (s-c) and State anxiety scale (A-trait) with established s-c (α = .77) and A-trait (α = .75). Furthermore, Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 (CSAI-2) with an-established α = .85, .83 somatic intensity and direction; cognitive intensity and direction α = .76, .83 subscale, measuring anxiety level of participants prior to performance. Fifty-seven participants (30 elite and 27 non-elite) completed a series of basketball layup shorts in a low pressure (LP) condition (pre-test) and high pressure (HP) condition (post-test). Two hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to analyzed the data.

The results obtained showed that hypothesis one using two psychological inventories were accurate predictors of choking-susceptible university elite and non-elite athletes at 66.7% success rate. There was a significant main effect on task [F () = 24.276, p<.05], While there were no significant effect on gender [F () = 2.169, p>.05] and sport composition [F () = 1.635, p>.05]. Based on the outcomes of the results and previous choking research, choking processes are relatively complex and differ based on personality characteristics. Therefore, understanding individual zone of optimum functioning (ZOF), administration of intervention strategies such as group activation, skill techniques and sufficient training before competitions in different situations could help to control and managed choking effect among susceptible athletes.


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