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- Volume 19, Issue 2, 2011
IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal - Volume 19, Issue 2, 2011
Volumes & issues
Volume 19, Issue 2, 2011
Learning style, school environment and test anxiety as correlates of learning outcomes among secondary school studentsAuthor M.O. OgundokunSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 19, pp 321 –336 (2011)More Less
The study investigated learning styles, school environment and test anxiety as predictors of learning outcomes among secondary school students. The participants were three hundred senior secondary two students randomly selected from randomly selected secondary schools in Iseyin Local Government Area of Oyo State. Their age ranged between 12 and 19 years with mean age of 15.4 years and the standard deviation of 4.56. The participants were administered four valid and reliable instruments to assess the predictors of learning outcomes among the students (learning styles, school environment and test anxiety). Pearson's Product Moment Correlation and Multiple regression analysis were used to analyse the data. The result demonstrated that learning styles, school environment and test anxiety jointly predicts the learning outcomes but test anxiety is the most potent predictor of learning outcomes. The implications of the findings for educational and counselling practice were highlighted.
Source: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 19, pp 337 –351 (2011)More Less
There is a prevalent assumption that the fact that a mental experience has a phenomenal property is an ontological fact and that the problem of explaining the phenomenal property of a mental experience is an epistemological problem. Contrary to this assumption, the paper argues that the claim that mental experience gives rise to phenomenal property is an assertion about the world, which is yet to be adequately justified. Justifying this assertion is identified as the further problem of the hard problem of consciousness. This shows that assertions about phenomenal properties of mental experiences are wholly epistemological. Hence, the problem of explaining phenomenal properties of a mental state is not a metaphysical problem, and what is considered a hard problem of consciousness is due to human reasoning process rather than an ontological process.
Attitudes towards people living with HIV / AIDS : a study of Idemili north and Oyi local government areas of Anambra State, NigeriaSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 19, pp 352 –364 (2011)More Less
The HIV / AIDS (Human Immune Deficiency Virus / Acquired immune Deficiency Syndrome) pandemic has brought the problem of attitudes towards people living with HIV / AIDS (PLHIV). The nature of the disease made it imperative to study people's attitudes towards PLHIV as it has serious implications for how PLHIV cope with the disease. Negative attitudes towards PLHIV make life very difficult for PLHIV. This study examined Anambra people's attitudes towards PLHIV with the goal of exploring those practices / behaviours that affect PLHIV.
The study was carried out in Idemmili North and Oyi local government areas of Anambra State, Nigeria. Quantitative methodology was used to elicit information from respondents who are adult males and females of 18 years and above. The survey was employed. Questionnaires were administered on 1000 respondents and 914 questionnaires were completed.
The findings were: The people generally have very positive attitudes to PLHIV. In conclusion, the positive attitudes towards PLHIV are products of the people's cultural beliefs and practices which made it imperative for the people to care for sick relations. This means that PLHIV in the study area receive care and support from relations. These cultural practices could be harnessed fully with effective intervention programmes.
Source: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 19, pp 365 –379 (2011)More Less
The relationship between religion and personality has often been debated in psychology with some theorists advocating the inclusion of religion in models of personality and others advocating that religion is a separate entity from personality. Other research also debates whether religion impacts positively or negatively on personality. Thus the relationship between perceptions of religious orientation and personality styles utilising the Allport-Ross Religious Orientation Scale (1967) and the Millon Index of Personality Styles (1994) was investigated in a sample of 158 psychology students at the University of the Witwatersrand. Results indicated significant differences in the personality styles of intrinsically and extrinsically religiously oriented students. Significant differences were also found between religiously affiliated individuals and individuals with no religious affiliation in terms of personality and religious orientation. The implications of these results for the field of personality psychology are discussed with particular emphasis on the role of religion within personality psychology.
Author Z. AllamSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 19, pp 380 –393 (2011)More Less
The present study was carried out to observe the difference between male and female Eritrean students on the basis of stressful life events, vulnerable to stress and depression. Stressful life Events Questionnaire, Vulnerable to Stress Instrument and Beck Depression Scale were administered to gather information. The data were analyzed by using Means, Standard Deviations, and 't'-test to compare the groups. The results revealed that (i) female students showed more stressful life events than male students (ii) male and female groups were found significantly difference with stress and (iii) female students found significantly more depression than male counterparts. Based on findings researcher has given some suggestions.
Author Mumuni ThompsonSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 19, pp 394 –411 (2011)More Less
Moral education typically refers to teaching pupils the difference between right and wrong. The study attempted to identify and understand how moral values of preschool children are developed. Four teachers (2 males, 2 females) in 2 kindergarten classes in Bawku participated in the study. Each teacher was observed for 3 hours a day for three consecutive days resulting in 36 hours of videotaped data. The teachers were also interviewed. There were 284 incidents in which teachers engaged in some form of moral or deductive instructions. The study established that teachers perceived themselves as moral educators. In addition, moral values such as right and wrong as well as honesty were being transmitted to the children through methods such as individual education, group education, opportunity education and storytelling. Results indicated that the teachers transmitted moral values once in a while but more socialization skills were transmitted frequently. The implications of these findings were discussed.
Author Yemisi Lydia OlaleyeSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 19, pp 412 –425 (2011)More Less
The aged constitute a repository of wisdom and experiences. The complex socio-economic difficulties experienced in developing countries has led to the neglect of the aged, and the strategies for ensuring a guaranteed social welfare package for them are increasingly being ignored. This study examined the socio-psychological problems of Yoruba and Hausa dwelling in South-Western Nigeria. Descriptive survey research design was employed for the study. Stratified random sampling technique was used to select 300 respondents. The main instrument used for data collection was structured questionnaire, complemented with Oral Interview. The findings revealed that there is significant difference between the traditional social welfare of the aged Hausa and Yoruba. The findings also revealed that there is significant difference between communication media used for ameliorating the socio-psychological problems of the aged in Hausa and Yoruba community. The findings showed that there is significant difference between traditional social welfare policies of the aged Hausa and Yoruba of Nigeria. It was, therefore, recommended that the children and kins of the aged make provision for their parents, encourage their domestic rehabilitation, attend to their socio-psychological problems and reinforce their communication media to promote longevity of life. The aged too should make adequate provision for their old age through investment in viable shares, children education from their youthful age and other investments that can secure comfort in their old age.
Source: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 19, pp 426 –436 (2011)More Less
Entrepreneurship increases the capital output and income of a nation and it is accompanied by growth and increased output which allow more wealth to be distributed by the various participants. It is a tool necessary in the creation of more jobs and poverty reduction which is one eight Millennium Development Goals. The study investigated the entrepreneurial inclination of students in universities in Delta State. Random Sampling technique was adopted to select 200 students used from two universities in the State (one private and public). The Entrepreneurial Inclination Questionnaire (EIQ) was administered to the respondents to collect relevant data. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the data collected. The findings showed that 98% of the respondents were either moderately or highly inclined towards entrepreneurship. Also no significant differences were found in the entrepreneurial inclination of students based on their demographic characteristics. It was recommended that the directive by the government on the teaching of entrepreneurship in all tertiary institutions should be enforced, so that school graduates will be productive members of the society.
Bibliotherapy : an option for enhancing students' motivation for academic achievement in Iganmode Grammar School and Grait International College, OtaAuthor Julie E. IloghoSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 19, pp 437 –461 (2011)More Less
The paper examines Bibliotherapy (Book Therapy) as an option for fostering students' motivation for academic achievement and success. Enhancing students' motivation for academic achievement is an important subject in educational psychology which requires serious attention. The research is a survey study and random sampling technique was adopted for selecting the population sample. The Respondents for this study are Senior Secondary School 3 students from Iganmode Grammar School (a Public School) and Grait International College (a Private School) both located in Ota, Ogun State, Nigeria. The finding revealed that students who read diverse kinds of materials including textbooks; used library material; and acquired personal reading materials had their achievement motivation enhanced / increased than those who do not read books, use library resources or acquire personal books. Thus, the two Null Hypotheses tested were rejected. Recommendations include: (1) that the Government and all other institution responsible for managing Education of younger generations should come together and find a lasting solution to the education sector, conduct research, and prescribe practicable educational policies that will move the nation's education forward. (2) Government should increase the funding of education. (3) Librarians should collaborate with school authorities, counselors and teachers in order to render more effective library services. (4) Librarians should work with school teachers and counsellors to know the reading needs and challenges of students; this will assist in acquiring relevant reading materials in addition to academic books.(5) Book club programmes packaged with giving of awards to best readers and most frequent users of library resources should be encouraged in schools. (6) School Management should make provision for a robust school library that is stocked with all kinds relevant materials including motivational books. Finally (7) Bibliotherapy should be taught as a course or incorporated into an already existing course offered in Nigeria Library Schools.
Investigating whether children's transition from pre-operational stage to concrete operational stage can be accelerated using an intervention strategyAuthor Fiifi MensahSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 19, pp 462 –482 (2011)More Less
The study investigated the effect of using intervention to accelerate children's transition from pre-operational stage to concentrate operational stage of the cognition development. The sample consisted of intact class of 27 children with average age of 5 years. It was made up of 13 males and 14 females. A pretest-posttest quasi-experimental design with random assignment of children to experimental and control groups were employed to examine possible treatment effects due exposure to the intervention strategy. There was no difference between the male and female children at the pre-operational stage in their characteristic way of thinking before the intervention strategy. Achievements were, however, found to be higher for the experimental group on questions which demanded concrete operational level of thinking. This implies that children's cognitive development can be accelerated when they are exposed to more intellectually stimulating environment. It is recommended that early childhood teachers must expose children to various intellectually stimulating environments to help them accelerate their mental development.