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- Volume 20, Issue 1, 2012
IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal - Volume 20, Issue 1, 2012
Volumes & issues
Volume 20, Issue 1, 2012
Influence of psycho-demographic factors and effectiveness of psycho-behavioural interventions on sexual risk behaviour of in-school adolescents in Ibadan CityAuthor A.O. AdejumoSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 20, pp 1 –18 (2012)More Less
Sexual risk behaviours (SRBs) among youths continue to reverse the initial gains in HIV / STD control in Nigeria. Very little is known about the interactive influence of psycho-demographic factors (self concept, HIV / AIDS knowledge, and gendezr) and psycho-behavioural interventions (psychoeducation and assertiveness training) in reducing HIV SRBs among at-risk in-school adolescents.
The study investigated the influence of psychodemographic factors and psycho-behavioural interventions on HIV SRB. The quasi-experimental study purposively recruited 120 participants who reported unsafe HIV SRB during a school-wide survey in Ibadan. They responded to an 85-item questionnaire, and were further exposed to a 6- week psycho-behavioural treatment. Following a 3x2x2x2 ANCOVA, MCA and descriptive statistics, results showed that treatments significantly influenced HIV SRB (F (2,119) = 11.31, P <0.005). Psycho-education intervention participants recorded greater reductions in HIV SRB (n,40, x =29.57), followed by the assertiveness training group (n,40, x =39.68), and lastly the control group (n,40, x = 43.90). Female adolescents with high self-concept and good knowledge of HIV/AIDS who received psycho-education recorded the greatest reduction in HIV SRB (n6, x =24.67, SD=5.89). Male adolescents in the control group with low selfconcept but with good HIV / AIDS knowledge (n6, x = 53.50, SD=16.23) recorded the most unsafe post intervention HIV SRB score.
Good knowledge of HIV / AIDS alone does not yield safe HIV SRB, but additional exposure to psychoeducation, with good self-concept development. Therefore, behavioural techniques should be considered along with other interventions in STDs and HIV control among in-school adolescents.
Source: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 20, pp 19 –48 (2012)More Less
The Five Factor Model (FFM) of personality is currently amongst the most widely accepted theories in personality psychology and the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) is one of the best operationalisations of this model. Research indicates that the FFM is not wholly applicable in African cultures (Laher, 2008). Thus this study explored the utility of the NEO-PI-R in a sample of 17 postgraduate students from the University of the Witwatersrand using a mixed methods approach. A non-experimental cross-sectional design was used to determine which items of the NEO-PI-R are culturally and linguistically inappropriate. A questionnaire incorporating the NEO-PI-R, demographic information; namely age, gender, population group and home language, and open-ended questions were used. 28.75% (69 out of 240) of the items of the NEO-PI-R were found to be culturally inappropriate in the study by more than 10% of the sample. These items were primarily from the Openness to Experience, Extraversion and Agreeableness domains. 43.33% (104 out of 240) of the items were found to be linguistically problematic in the study by more than 10% of the sample. These items were primarily from the Openness to Experience and Neuroticism domains. A focus group was conducted with 5 of the 17 postgraduate students. A thematic content analysis conducted on the focus group session revealed 6 themes in terms of the utility of the NEO-PI-R, namely, language, culture, psychometric testing, dynamic vs. static nature of personality and social desirability.
Source: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 20, pp 49 –56 (2012)More Less
Psychological debriefing is widely applied for victims who encounter overwhelming trauma. This study aimed at assessing the anxiety levels and psychiatric morbidity of class mates of the victims of a plane crash and also to carry out bereavement-oriented group psychotherapy to alleviate observed psychopathology in the study group.
Participants were assessed with Hamilton anxiety rating scale and the 12th version of the general health questionnaire before and after the application of one single bereavement-oriented group psychotherapy.
The pre-application of the Hamilton anxiety rating scale and general health questionnaire had significantly elevated scores as compared to the post psychotherapy scores.
Bereavement-oriented group psychotherapy was found to be effective in lowering psychopathology associated with bereavement and may further prevent post traumatic stress disorder.
Educator's self-efficacy and collective educators' self-efficacy among university academic staff : an ethical issueSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 20, pp 57 –69 (2012)More Less
One of the ethics of psychology profession is to cooperate with other professionals in order to serve their clients effectively and efficiently. The present study therefore explored the influence of educator's self-efficacy on collective educators' self-efficacy among university academic staff. A total of 99 participants consisting of 50 (50.5%) male and 49 (49.5%) female, made up of both professional librarians and teaching staff were randomly selected from all colleges of a University. The study used cross-sectional research design which specifically adopted ex-post facto design. Standardised psychological instruments were used for collection of data. The multiple regression analysis, t-test of independent samples and Pearson correlation were used to analyse the data. Age, sex and educator's self efficacy jointly explained 22% variance in collective educators' self efficacy. Only educator self efficacy independently predicted collective educators' self efficacy (β = .59; P < .05). There was no significant difference between teaching staff and professional librarians on collective educators' self efficacy but significant difference existed between male and female academic staff on collective educators' self efficacy. The implication of the result in terms of collaborative work among academic staff was discussed in line with ethical principles and code of conduct of psychologists.
Author Remi OpayemiSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 20, pp 70 –86 (2012)More Less
The purpose of this study was to investigate the psychosocial factors predisposing university undergraduates to mentoring relationship. Using convenience sampling, a total of 320 participants were recruited including164 males and 156 females, whose ages ranged from 17 to 30. Questionnaires on Locus of control, self esteem, and mentoring relationship were used to gather data from the participants. The result showed that Locus of Control significantly, independently predicted mentoring relationship, while, psycho-social factors (self-esteem, Age Sex, Religion, Year of study, and Ethnicity) did not show significant independent prediction of mentoring relationship. In addition, psycho-social factors (Religion, Level of Education and Ethnicity) have a negative relationship with mentoring relationship.
The study's findings showed that locus of control, age and year of study are factors that determine whether university undergraduates will be opened to mentoring relationship. Furthermore, university undergraduates who internalize locus of control will be more opened to involve in mentoring relationship than university undergraduates who externalize locus of control. Therefore, for mentoring relationship to be effective and successful, locus of control (internal locus of control), age and year of study of university undergraduates should be considered. This is believed will enhance and develop individual and management skills; reduce stress, increase academic performance, and reduction in anti-social behaviour in both the social and academic environment.
Relationship between learning resources and student's academic achievement in science subjects in Taraba State Senior Secondary SchoolsSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 20, pp 87 –102 (2012)More Less
The study investigated relationship between learning resources and student's academic achievement in science subjects in Taraba State Secondary Schools. A total of 35 science teachers and 18 science head of departments from 6 schools from three geopolitical zones of Taraba State were involved in the study. Three different research instruments were employed in collecting the data: (i) Bio-data of science teachers for Biology, Chemistry and Physics. (ii) Laboratory equipment inventory checklist (LEIC) for Biology (BLEIC); Chemistry (CLEIC) and Physics (PLEIC) for the 18 science laboratories of the schools selected. (iii) Students' Academic Achievement scores collect data on students' scores in WASSCE from 2003 - 2007. Four null hypotheses were raised and tested using Pearson's Product Moment Correlation Coefficient and student's t-test statistics. The results of data analysis showed that laboratory equipment and the number of qualified teachers were inadequate for Biology, Chemistry and in Physics where there were no qualified teachers at all. The result also revealed that availability of qualified science teachers had no significant relationship on academic achievement of students in science subjects at p<0.05. The results also indicated that there was no difference in the academic of schools with adequate laboratory equipment and those without them. The results also showed that there was no difference in the academic achievement of students in science subjects of students who attended pure science schools and those who attended non - pure science schools. On the basis of these findings it was recommended that more learning resources be provided in the secondary schools in Taraba State.
Risk management and corporate governance performance - empirical evidence from the Nigerian banking sectorAuthor R.I. AkindeleSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 20, pp 103 –120 (2012)More Less
The study examines the relative effect of risk management and corporate governance on bank performance in Nigeria. The study utilizes both primary and secondary data. The primary data were collected using structured questionnaire that were administered in Four-hundred and eighty (480) employees of Wema Bank Plc in Nigeria. The subjects were randomly selected from Head Office and Osun State regional branches across the various departments, while annual financial reports for the year ended 2008 and 2009 were used as secondary data. Financial ratios were computed for analysis on data.
The study reveals that there is a positive relationship between risk management and bank performance. That effective risk management and corporate governance enhance bank profitability and performance. Further, that bank performances depend largely on risk management and corporate governance. Also better corporate governance lead to better risk management.
It was concluded that risk management has significant effect on bank performance and profitability.
Author K. Oppong AsanteSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 20, pp 121 –133 (2012)More Less
Attitudes towards mathematics and associated anxiety have been known to plague students with diverse socio-economic backgrounds. The purpose of this study was to investigate senior high student's attitudes towards mathematics and to explore sex differences in attitudes towards mathematics among students in Accra. A cross-sectional data containing demographic information and attitudes towards mathematics were collected from 181 students made up of 109 boys and 72 girls. They were conveniently sampled from three high schools. Two anonymous self-administered questionnaires were used namely the demographic data questionnaire and the Attitudes Towards Mathematics Inventory (ATMI). The data was analyzed using the SPSS version 16 for calculating mean and the results revealed that there was a significant difference in attitudes shown towards mathematics between boys and girls. The school environment, teachers attitudes and beliefs, teaching styles and parental attitudes were identified as explanation factors that account for student's attitudes towards mathematics. Teachers and other stakeholders in the education industry should organize seminars and workshops for students, parents, teachers and school administrators to enhance and promote positive attitudes towards mathematics.
Differential effectiveness of self-management and token reinforcement in the treatment of adolescents' disorderlinessSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 20, pp 134 –151 (2012)More Less
This study investigated the differential effectiveness of self-management and token reinforcement in the treatment of adolescents' disorderliness. The participants for this study were seventy-two (36 females and 36 males) inmates taken from a cluster of delinquent children (ages 9 - 18) of Remand Homes for boys and girls in Lagos State of Nigeria. A 2x2x3 pre-test post-test factorial design was adopted. Four hypotheses were tested based on analysis of co-variance (ANCOVA) at .05 level of significance. Data were collected using Disorderliness Inventory (DI) which has alpha reliability coefficient of .80. The result of the study revealed a significant difference in the effectiveness of self-management and token reinforcement in the treatment of disorderliness (P <.05), gender and socio-economic background of the subject did not interact with the treatments of disorderliness. Based on the result of this study, implications were pointed out.
Source: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 20, pp 152 –164 (2012)More Less
This study surveys teachers' conceptual knowledge of inclusive education in the Cape Coast Metropolis. Using purposive and simple random sampling methods, 132 teachers were selected to participate in the study. Results indicate that majority of teachers have conceptual knowledge in inclusive education. Teacher characteristics, such as gender, teaching experience and professional qualification were found to have no significant influence on teacher knowledge about inclusive education. It has been recommended that the curriculum in the pre-service teacher institutions must include courses in inclusive education and in-service training must be organized for teachers as well as service providers.
Author Emmanuel U. OramahSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 20, pp 165 –175 (2012)More Less
Counselling process is a function of different issues that contribute to its uniqueness. Counselling records remain a veritable issue that benefits the counsellor, the client, and the entire counselling process. This paper, therefore, discussed counselling records as one area that requires adequate consideration from the counsellor. It is contended that counselling records will serve its purposes when its different dimensions are known and utilized by the counsellor. These different dimensions discussed were the clinical, ethical, legal, fiscal, and risk management dimensions. They point to the multi-purpose nature of a counselling record.
Author Fareo Dorcas OluremiSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 20, pp 176 –191 (2012)More Less
The paper highlighted the education of students with special needs from special schools to mainstreaming programmes, classification of exceptionalities found in children; benefits of mainstreaming, the challenges facing mainstreaming; and the lessons for 21st century. The study concluded that students with special needs were yet to be integrated with regular students in public schools in Nigeria and this could affect their self perception and academic performance.
Source: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 20, pp 192 –202 (2012)More Less
From a total of 365 randomly selected employees of Guinness Nigeria Plc and Bendel Brewery, Benin City, Nigeria, this article has examined employee characteristics and employee adaptation in organizations. Employee adaptation is in relation to getting use to primary assignment to deal with it successfully. The article is in furtherance of employee participation because we had observed earlier that over 60.3% respondents had their disciplines in conformity with their areas of primary assignments in the organizations. Yet, precisely 51.8% tended to have indicated that they were not adapted to their 'work now'. Although it could not be claimed that age, sex and religion were significant factors in employee adaptation' other social action and interaction influencing variables were. These included marital status, education and income. It is therefore recommended that organizations should improve on adaptation program for 'new and existing hires' towards increasing productivity in work places.
The roles of sexual harassment and personality trait types on sexual response among Nigerian University undergraduatesSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 20, pp 203 –213 (2012)More Less
The study examined the roles of sexual harassment and personality trait types on sexual responses among university undergraduates. 100 participants (50 sexually harassed and 50 controlled) matched on the bases of age and gender were used for the study. Their M age was 24.68 with SD age of 3.48. A demographic instrument eliciting sexual harassment experience, the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ) Adult, by Eysenck and Eysenck (1975) and the Sexual Anxiety Inventory (SAI) by Hoon and Chambless were the instruments used. Ex-post facto matched group design was used while Repeated ANOVA measures was used in data analysis. The result of the study showed significant difference of personality type on sexual dysfunction, F (2,196)=65.89 (Mean. Psychoticism = 65.74, Extroversion = 31.87, Neuroticism = 61.99). However no difference was seen on sexual harassment and sexual anxiety. Significant interaction effect was also seen on sexual harassment and personality types on sexual dysfunction. The findings of the study implicated educational and social interactions as pathways through which sexual abuse can result in sexual anxiety.
Assessment of emotional intelligence among secondary school students in Ibadan metropolis, Oyo State, NigeriaSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 20, pp 214 –228 (2012)More Less
The study used descriptive design of survey type to assess emotional intelligence among secondary school students in Ibadan metropolis, Oyo State, Nigeria. The influences of demographic variables such as gender, family type and age on emotional intelligence were examined. The participants in the study were 393 students randomly selected from eight secondary schools. There ages ranged from 10 to 25 years. In the study, Emotional Intelligent Questionnaire was used to measure emotional intelligence of the participants. Data were analysed using Simple Percentages, t-test Statistical Analysis and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). The results revealed that emotional intelligence was low among the majority of the participants but family type was a significant factor influencing emotional intelligence while gender and age were not. Based on these findings, it is recommended that secondary school students should be exposed to emotional intelligence training intervention and special attention should be given to students from polygamous and single-parent families during the training.
Source: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 20, pp 229 –240 (2012)More Less
There is a large body of evidence which have shown that monitoring personal effort on group projects reduces social loafing effects, but as the world gets more complex with several co-operative tasks there is a need to explore other variables that would inspire group, rather than individual performance. This experiment re-examined the prediction that performing in large group would lead to social loafing behaviour, the study also tested whether the promise of reward would attenuate social loafing effect on a simple experimental task. Forty (40) Igbo secondary school students of south eastern Nigeria participated in the experiment. They were aged 13 - 16 years (mean age = 14.53). Results indicated that performance was significantly poorer in the group condition than in the alone condition (p. <05); and reward significantly attenuated social loafing effect in the group condition (p. <05). These observations were discussed in relation to the prevailing challenge in team work.
Source: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 20, pp 241 –251 (2012)More Less
This study investigated the effect of school location on students' learning outcomes in practical physics. A pretest, posttest, control group, quasi experimental design was used. Three null hypotheses were tested at 0.05 alpha levels for each of the three dependent variables. The sample consisted of 526 Senior Secondary School II physics students drawn from eight co-educational schools in Ibadan. Simple random sampling was used to select four local government areas (LGAs) from Ibadan city and four local government areas from Ibadan less city. Purposive sampling was used to select a school from each of the eight selected LGAs. An intact SSII science class in each selected school was picked at random. Four valid and reliable instruments were used to collect the data. Analysis of covariance and Scheffe Post Hoc were used for data analysis. Results showed that school location had a significant main effect on students' cognitive attainment [F (1,526) =50.60; P <0.05]; performance in practical skills [F (1,526) = 16.62; P <0.05]; but there was no significant main effect on attitude. Physics teachers are advised to make genuine effort to encourage students in less city schools. Educational stakeholders should encourage teachers and students in rural schools by making available the infrastructures, equipments, materials, etcetera (that are in city schools) in less city schools.
Source: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 20, pp 252 –262 (2012)More Less
Given the stridency with which gambling advertisement is used to lure adolescents and young adults by modern news media, this study examines the prevalence of gambling behaviours among undergraduate students in South-Western Nigeria with the aims of determining its nature and its relationship with their study habits. The study sample consists of 2, 400 students selected by stratified random sampling across federal, state and private universities located in the South-Western part of the country. Two instruments, an adapted Version of the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS) and Bakare's (1970) Study Habit Inventory (SHI) were used for the collection of data in this study and the data collected were analyzed using descriptive analysis and Pearson r statistics. The result shows that a considerable percentage of undergraduate still demonstrate pathological gambling behaviour and a negative correlation between gambling behaviour and students' study habits.
Author Esther Aduke AyeniSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 20, pp 263 –274 (2012)More Less
Little attention has been given to social anxiety in Nigeria despite its debilitating effects on the sufferers. The objective of this study was to develop, standardize and validate an instrument (Social Anxiety Scale) with high coefficients of Cronbach Alpha Internal Consistency Split-half reliability and construct validity. It will measure social anxiety in both the general population and individuals who suffer from social anxiety.
464 participants with age range 12 to 22 years were used. Three instruments, Personal Data Form, Social Anxiety Scale (SAS) and Fear of Negative Evaluation (FNE) were used to collect data. Statistical Package for Social Scientist (SPSS) version 17 was used to analyze the data. Descriptive statistics was used to compute the reliability coefficients. The factorial validity was established using Principal Component factor analysis with iteration and orthogonal varimax rotation.
The Social Anxiety Scale was found to be reliable with significant split-half and Cronbach Alpha Reliability coefficients. Social Anxiety and six of its seven subscales correlated positively and significantly with the scores in Fear of Negative Evaluation.
The newly developed scale (SAS) should enable teachers and future researchers on social anxiety screen their wards and participants for social anxiety.