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- Volume 21, Issue 1, 2013
IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal - Volume 21, Issue 1, 2013
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Volume 21, Issue 1, 2013
Author A. A. OlowuSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 21 (2013)More Less
Our first product this year 2013 is the Volume twenty-one Number one of Ife PsychologIA. It has twenty-five brilliant articles from around the globe. We believe that they will benefit our readers. Aristotle, opined that we are what we repeatedly do, excellence then, is not an act but a habit.
Author Esther F. AkinsolaSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 21, pp 1 –16 (2013)More Less
Shared Intentionality was defined as a collaborative interaction in which the participants share psychological states with one another (Tomasello & Carpenter, 2007). In this study an attempt was made to establish the developmental nature of shared intentionality in some Nigerian infants.Twenty One mothers of the (Yoruba) ethnic group, and their infants participated in the study. The ages of the infants ranged between 1 month and 18 months. The mother-infant pairs were observed in social interactions while interactional instructions were given both in the Yoruba language (for mothers) and in the English language (for video recording), to elicit the desired behavior from the infants. Analysis of the infants' behavior showed a progressive transformational development of intentional behavior from a relatively less active state of fixated looking to more active state of gaze following and joint attention, to cooperative communication and vocalization, reciprocal and collaborative activity in form of games (e.g. reciprocal ball throwing), social learning in form of reciprocal smiling and tongue protrusion (imitation), and instructed learning in form of compliance and non-compliance with mother's request. The frequency of intentional behavior exhibited by the infants increased as age increased. In instructed learning the infants studied demonstrated intentionality more by refusal than by compliance with mothers' requests. These findings supported the notion that infants are biologically programmed and socially motivated to develop shared intentionality, and they are socially competent and capable of reciprocating intentions very early in life.
Perceived organisational target selling, self-efficacy, sexual harassment and job insecurity as predictors of psychological wellbeing of bank employees in NigeriaSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 21, pp 17 –29 (2013)More Less
Mixed reports have shown that different variables account for differences in the psychological wellbeing of bank employees in Nigeria. Based on this premise, the study examined the contributions of perceived organizational target selling, self-efficacy, sexual harassment and job insecurity on psychological wellbeing among bank employees in Nigeria. A cross sectional survey design was used in the study. Two hundred (200) bank employees (110 females & 90 male) were conveniently sampled from 10 bank branches within Ibadan metropolis. Data were gathered using a self report questionnaire consisting of scales measuring variables in the study. Self efficacy, job insecurity, sexual harassment and target selling significantly jointly predicted psychological wellbeing (F=69.27, p<.05); accounting for 55% (R2= .55) variation of psychological wellbeing. Self-efficacy (β =.31, p<.05), job insecurity (β =-.32, p<.05) and target selling (β = -.46 p<.05) independently predicted psychological wellbeing. Sexual harassment did not independently predict psychological wellbeing (β = -.01, p >.05). Based on findings, it was concluded that perceived organizational target selling, self-efficacy, sexual harassment and job insecurity contribute largely to psychological wellbeing among bank employees in Nigeria. It was recommended that preventive measures should be put in place to improve the wellbeing of bank employees.
Source: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 21, pp 30 –39 (2013)More Less
The study was an experimental field that investigated short-term memory and digit span among the psychology students in federal and state universities in Lagos State, Nigeria. Memory is the process involved in retaining, retrieving and using information about stimuli, images, events, ideas and skills after original information is no longer present. A total of forty-two students participated in the study. Twenty-one of them were males while the remaining were females. They were given digit span to memorized and vocalised between two to four seconds. T-independent test was used to analysis the two hypotheses formulated for this study. The result showed that there was no gender difference in recall of digit span numbers and also there was a significant difference in the recall of digit span numbers between the participants from the two universities.
Comparisons of test anxiety level of senior secondary school students across gender, year of study, school type and parental educational backgroundAuthor Samuel Toyin AkanbiSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 21, pp 40 –54 (2013)More Less
Test anxiety has been noted to be a common experience among students and has been found to have a debilitating effect on academic performance and general well-being of affected people. Despite the universality of the experience, the manifestation of test anxiety varies across some psychosocial and demographic variables. Based on this assumption, this study examined the variation in test anxiety level of senior secondary school students across gender, year of study, school type and parental educational background. The study adopted a descriptive survey research design. Three hundred and sixty two (362) students from selected senior secondary schools in Ogbomoso area of Oyo State, Nigeria participated in the study. Sarason Test Anxiety Scale (r= 0.87) was employed to generate data for the study. t-Test was the statistical tool used for the analysis of data. Out of the four hypotheses formulated, only one was confirmed. Specifically, no statistical significant difference was observed in the test anxiety scores of participants based on year of study. However, significant differences occur in test anxiety scores of participants across gender, school type and parental educational background with female, public school, and low parental educational background students scoring higher in the measure of test anxiety. The outcomes of the study were discussed and it was suggested that stakeholders in education should design means through which test anxiety would be reduced among students across the examined variables.
Capital budgeting, government policies and the performance of SMEs in Nigeria : a hypothetical case analysisSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 21, pp 55 –73 (2013)More Less
This paper examined capital assets investment decision of Small and Medium Enterprises in Nigeria using a hypothetical case. It explored extant literature with respect to inhibitors to SMEs and their common capital budgeting techniques and the role of Government policies in enhancing the business activities of the citizens. It was found that although, inadequacy of funds is the most notorious inhibitor to SMEs development in Nigeria, the inability and lack of skills to effectively and efficiently allocate those financial resources can exacerbate their financial crises. The paper also used a hypothetical example to ex-ray the importance of using DCF methods of investment appraisal leading to the conclusion that sound investment decisions through the application of appropriate evaluation techniques are critical to SMEs long term fortune. It therefore recommended the application of discounted cash flow techniques such as NPV, IRR or even other more sophisticated methods by SMEs in evaluating their capital projects, as a panacea to their financial quagmire.
Author Olaniyi BojuwoyeSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 21, pp 74 –89 (2013)More Less
This article discusses the traditional beliefs, of many indigenous cultures of Africa, associated with ancestral spirits and its use as powerful therapeutic agent for influencing behavior or lifestyle changes. Explanatory models of attachment to ancestral spirits by living descendants are first discussed, followed by a discussion on major factors responsible for real sense experience of ancestral spirits. Special emphasis of the paper is on the employment of exemplary behavior or status of dead relative, during their lifetime, for influencing different aspects of life of living descendants including lifestyle and career choices. Also featured in the paper are the drawing of significant parallels between traditional and Western psychotherapeutic practices and suggestions as to how to incorporate ancestral spirits belief into conventional counselling and psychotherapy.
Source: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 21, pp 90 –100 (2013)More Less
The study was conducted to investigate the influence of family background on the academic performance of secondary school students in Nigeria. The study was carried out in the three senatorial districts of Kwara State. Three hundred respondents participated in this research. Descriptive statistics was used to analyze the data while t-test and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) were used to test the three generated null hypothesis at 0.05 alpha level of significance. The findings showed that there were no significant differences in the influence of family background on academic performance of secondary school students based on gender and age while a significant difference was noted based on family type. Based on the findings of the study, it was recommended that the government should establish guidance counselling programmes in every secondary school in Nigeria. Also parents should endeavor to create an enabling home environment for their children so as to encourage good academic performance.
Social-support, self-esteem and depression as determinants of quality of life among sickle cell patientsSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 21, pp 101 –113 (2013)More Less
This study examined the influence of social support, self-esteem and depression on the quality of life among sickle cell patients in Benin City. A total of 52 sickle cell patients made up of 29 males and 23 females participated in the study. Questionnaire was used in collecting data. The questionnaire consisted of the demographic variables, as well as Quality of Life, Depression, Self-esteem, and Social Support scales. Results of the simple multiple regression analysis revealed a significant joint influence of self-esteem, social support and depression [R2 = 0.32F (7,527); p < .001] on the quality of life among sickle cell patients [ă = 0.39; t = 3.28; p < .05]. The independent contributions showed that Social-support was found to significantly contribute greatly to quality of life, [ă = -0.374; t = 3.057; p < .05]. Also depression contributed significantly inversely to quality of life among sickle cell patients. However, self-esteem was not found to independently contribute significantly to quality of life, among sickle cell patients [ă = 0.25; t = .204; p > .05]. The findings have implication for understanding quality of life among sickle cell patients. Again, the findings are useful for the development of intervention that will enhance social support and self-efficacy among sickle cell patient as well as decrease their negative mood.
Source: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 21, pp 114 –126 (2013)More Less
Modern societies are embroiled with varied levels of conflict. The type and intensity of conflict is often historically determined and the causative factors are also closely tied to the social dynamics of the global community. Many factors tend to account for modern conflict. Apart from having political, economic, and environmental causes some are precipitated by socio-cultural and human factors. One area of concern is the type of weapons and strategies employed in the furtherance of the various interests of the combatants. While few socio-cultural groups favor Ghandian strategy several others adopt violence ranging from insurrection to terrorism. It is within the purview of the weapons and strategies employed in modern conflict that this paper examines the dimension of conflict along Niger-Delta region of Nigeria. It situates this dimension within the category of home grown terrorism in order to establish its criminal burden and also uses conflict theory to explain its socio-political relevance. It finally concludes with several alleviating strategies towards solving the current imbroglio.
Author Ejike OkonkwoSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 21, pp 127 –138 (2013)More Less
This study examined the influence of dual income family and gender on adolescents' self-esteem in Enugu, Nigeria. Participants comprised 86 (38 males and 46 females) secondary school students between the ages of 12 - 17 years and in Junior Secondary II to Senior Secondary III drawn from six state government secondary schools in Enugu metropolis using cluster and systematic sampling techniques. Hudson (1982) 25-item index of self-esteem scale measuring self-esteem was administered. Cross sectional survey design was used. Results from 2x2 Analysis of Variance F-test with unequal sample size revealed that dual income family did not influence adolescents' self-esteem, F(1,82) = 0.62 at p > .05 and gender did not influence adolescents' self-esteem, F(1,82) = 0.79 at p > .05. These findings were discussed in the light of Erikson (1968) psychosocial theory of development and Mcalister, Perry and Parcel (2008) social cognitive theory.
Author Oyelakin Richard TayeSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 21, pp 139 –163 (2013)More Less
The concern of Putnam's computational functionalism is to settle the age old mind-body problem. Computational functionalism attempted to reduce explanations of mental state to machine state explanation. This reductionism, on the initial assumption that mental state is a functional state of the whole organism, is used to argue that each thing about mental state could be reduced to and then explained through an adequate understanding of machine state. This research attempted to find out whether, perhaps, there are some mental properties which may not be sufficiently reduced and then adequately explained by computational functionalism. The research found out that there may be some properties, phenomena experience, propositional attitude, which may not be sufficiently reduced and then adequately explained by computational functionalism. But, at the heart of the whole discussion, the research found out that a lot of cloud will be cleared if the relationship between our language and mental state on the one hand, and our language and machine state on the other, is sufficiently clarified.
Exploring the reliability and validity of a Tigrignan translation of the NEO-PI-R in an Eritrean sampleSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 21, pp 164 –181 (2013)More Less
The Five-Factor Model (FFM) of personality is one of the most prominent models of personality particularly in the field of personality assessment and the NEO-PI-R is regarded amongst the best operationalisations of the FFM. The FFM and the NEO-PI-R have demonstrated applicability in over 50 cultures however its applicability in Asian and African cultures is not as well documented as in the more western cultures. Furthermore, the NEO-PI-R has been translated into many languages throughout the world so as to assess the applicability of the FFM across different cultural groupings. However, this is not the case in Eastern African region and particularly in Eritrea. In addition the NEO-PI-R has the potential to be used counseling services, clinical practices, vocational counseling, industrial and educational contexts. Thus, this study translated the NEO-PI-R into Tigrignan and explored the internal consistency reliability and construct validity of the Tigrignan translation in a sample of 436 Eritrean individuals. From the results it was evident that the domains of Neuroticism, Agreeableness and Conscientiousness were fairly well replicated. However Extraversion and Openness to Experience were not with the results suggesting that these domains may manifest differently amongst Eritrean individuals.
Perceived organizational support and some demographic variables predicting organizational commitment of non-teaching employees in a state-owned Nigerian universitySource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 21, pp 182 –193 (2013)More Less
Demographic and organizational changes in contemporary workplace have affected employees' commitment to the organization fundamentally. The present study investigated the relationship between perceived organizational support and some demographic variables on organizational commitment of non-teaching employees in a state-owned university in Nigeria. Using an ex post facto design, two hundred and six (n=206) non-teaching employees consisting of 110 male and 96 female were purposively selected for the study. A carefully designed questionnaire comprising three sections; demographic information, perceived organizational support scale and organizational commitment scale was used for data collection. The data collected was analyzed using t-test independence of means and simple multiple regression.Results indicated that perceived organizational support significantly influenced organizational commitment, (t (202) = -3.33, P<.05). Organizational tenure significantly contributed to the variance in organizational commitment, (B = .22; t = 2.30; P <.05). It was recommended that organizations should pay adequate attention to satisfying employees work-related and non-work related needs as this would make them to increase their attachment to the organization.
Effects of peer modelling technique in reducing substance abuse among undergraduates in Osun State, NigeriaAuthor Florence Adeoti YusufSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 21, pp 194 –205 (2013)More Less
The current trend of substance abuse among youth is a major national concern, it is troubling, it has derogatory effects on youth such as health and behavioural problems, or even death. The study investigated the effects of peer modelling techniques in reducing substance abuse among undergraduates in Nigeria. The participants were one hundred and twenty (120) undergraduate students in 100 and 400 levels respectively. There are two groups: one treatment group and one control group. A researcher-designed a questionnaire titled "Substance Abuse Questionnaire" was used to collect necessary data for the study. Research hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. The hypotheses were tested using abuse between treatment group and the control group that received placebo. There was no significant difference on the reduction of substance abuse of participants in the treatment group based on gender. Based on the findings of this study, it was recommended that the tertiary institutions should have a functioning counselling centers; school counsellors should be making use of peer modelling techniques to correct bad behaviours among undergraduates; school counsellors shoul be recognizing different educative programmes to encourage healthy living among undergraduates.
Influence of socio-cultural factors on child's upbringing in Oshodi/Isolo Local Government Area of Lagos State, NigeriaSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 21, pp 206 –216 (2013)More Less
This paper investigated the influence of socio-cultural factors on child's upbringing in Oshodi/Isolo Local Government Area of Lagos State, Nigeria. Precisely, 250 parents having children that are 0-12 years were interviewed with the aid of questionnaire schedule. The study tested only two hypotheses. Frequency table, Chi-square and binary logistic regression analysis were employed to analyze the data obtained from the survey. The major findings are: firstly, that the socio-cultural factors identified in this study include; the influence of residential environment, family, culture and social institutions. Secondly, that the socio-cultural factors such as; the influence of family, social institutions and residential environment are significantly related to child's upbringing through authoritarian parenting style.Thus, the paper recommends the following: firstly, that the native culture of every parent should reflect in their choice of authoritarian parenting style. Lastly, the family involvement, social institution and residential environment should form the bedrock in child's upbringing in every Nigerian society.
Source: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 21, pp 217 –227 (2013)More Less
The paper examined library support for Covenant University's core value of capacity building. The objectives of the paper include: to explore the context of capacity building in Covenant University, examine various capacity building initiatives available to faculty, staff and students and to enumerate different ways the University Library supports capacity building in the University. Some of the capacity building initiatives of the University as identified by this study are; in-house postgraduate studies, trainings and conferences, faculty advance, total man concept, and building the total graduate. The study highlighted creation of escapist reading, selective dissemination of information, empowerment of Heads of Departments/Units/Deans through targeted literature and creation of spiritual and leadership development section among others as some of the roles of the library in supporting the Covenant University core value of capacity building. The paper concluded by noting that it is necessary for individuals and organizations to accord capacity building a pride of place in the scheme of things as this is essential for maximum performance and productivity.
An analysis of the interactive effects of demographic variables on students' academic performance in Nigerian universitiesSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 21, pp 228 –244 (2013)More Less
This study investigated the influence of two environmental variables (social density and overcrowding) on students' learning and academic performance in selected Nigerian Universities. 150 undergraduates drawn from two universities within the middle belt region of Nigeria made up of 90 males and 60 females responded to the questionnaire. Age range of participants was 20-50 years with a mean of 24 and a standard deviation of 4.2 The Perceived and Actual Density Scale developed by Moch, Bordas and Herman (1996) was reviewed and adopted for the purpose of data collection. Three hypotheses were tested and two were accepted while one was rejected. It was found that there are no significant differences in the experience of these environmental variables between males and females. The study also confirmed that overcrowding and social density have significant effects on the academic performance of the respondents (248.271, df1, f=55.083, p<0.05). In conclusion, the study recommends in the interim, the provision of psychotherapeutic services on all Nigerian University campuses to help and assist all distressed students studying under such hash learning environments and a proactive intervention by government(s) and Councils of the various institutions; and public/private partnership in infrastructural development to address this problem in the Nigeria University education in particular and tertiary institutions in the country in general. Doing these will no doubt create conducive learning environment to students in such institutions.
Socio-demographic variables as predictors of psychological well-being amongst the adolescents with hearing impairment in Southwest NigeriaAuthor Aveez Oluwatoyin BakareSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 21, pp 245 –259 (2013)More Less
Studies on the psychological well-being of adolescents with hearing impairment are generally scanty and have not sufficiently addressed socio-demographic variables of interest on the psychological well-being of such adolescents. This study, therefore, investigated the relative contributions and predictive value of age, gender and socio-economic status on psychological Well-being of adolescents with hearing impairment in southwest, Nigeria. The study adopted survey research design of ex-post facto type. Purposive sampling was used to select eight senior secondary schools and 491 adolescents with hearing impairment using a battery operated audiometer. Two validated instruments were used to gather data for the study. Two research questions were answered. Data were analysed using multiple regression analysis. Two (Age- B= .309; t = 1.250; p>.05 and Gender-B= 1.961; t = 1.241; p>.05) of the three independent variables could lowly predict psychological well being, while Socio-Economic Status (B= -.214; t = 1.076; p>.05) has a discordant prediction to psychological well being. Age and gender made significant contributions that are, even though, low but Socio-Economic Status accounted for the least contribution towards psychological well being. Hearing impaired adolescents and their managers be exposed to training workshops on positive development of age and gender. Counselling psychologists and special educators via this finding should provide a strong basis for bridging the gap in past research on the concreteness and gravity of psychological well-being among the hearing impaired adolescents in southwestern Nigeria.
Author Emmanuel U. OramahSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 21, pp 260 –273 (2013)More Less
The working environment could exact tremendous pressure on the workers with possible negative consequences on productivity. As such, workplace counselling has long been a positive tool for maintenance of sanity in the workplace. While workplace counselling has become a specialized medium for assisting workers in the developed world, its emergence in Nigeria remains relatively new and untapped. On the possibility of witnessing its emergence and practice in Nigeria, this paper highlights the possible problems and prospects that could be considered in the process. Issues discussed included conflict of values, counsellor competency problem, workplace counselling as a victimization tool, management of client information, workplace counselling as an excuse or avoidance route, making workplaces mental-health friendly, display of care, preventive mechanism, a risk management tool, and a medium of organizational change.