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- Volume 22, Issue 1, 2014
IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal - Volume 22, Issue 1, 2014
Volumes & issues
Volume 22, Issue 1, 2014
What he wants is not what she wants : using VIE theory to test manager and worker motivation in Ghanaian SMEsSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 22, pp 1 –10 (2014)More Less
The objective of this study was to explore differences in motivation of employees in Ghanaian SMEs using Vroom's VIE theory. Responses were received from 150 managers and workers in 14 SMEs. To test the hypotheses of differences between managers and workers on the various scales, the independent samples t-test was used. The study found statistically significant differences between the valence scores for the managers and workers. No differences were found between managers and workers in terms of expectancy, instrumentality and motivation in general. The results suggest that managers and workers have differences in value of anticipated outcomes. Identifying these differences and motivating managers and workers accordingly could lead to higher productivity and increasing profitability of SMEs.
Author A.A. OlowuSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 22 (2014)More Less
Psychology is our only business and only trade. In this edition of our journal, Ife PsychologIA Volume 22 Number 1, 2014 we have brought fresh challenges to students with different interests and concerns, current thinking and research to present, we elucidate past standards and try to exceed. We hope you enjoy the great mix and results.
Influence of psychological factors on self and perceived stigma and the efficacy of cognitive behaviour therapy in symptoms reduction among mentally ill patientsAuthor Aide Sylvester OkhakhumeSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 22, pp 11 –22 (2014)More Less
Majority of people who might benefit from mental health care either opt not to pursue it or do not fully adhere to treatment regimes once begun. They choose not to pursue mental health services because they do not want to be labeled a "mental patient" or suffer the prejudice and discrimination that the label entails. This study was conducted to investigate the influence of self esteem, locus of control and self efficacy on self and perceived stigma among mentally ill patients. Also, to examined the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in symptoms reduction. The first stage of the study as a cross sectional study which adopted ex-post-facto design. The sample size is one hundred and thirty (130 patients) with mean age of forty (16-65) and the standard deviations .456. For the intervention stage, the researcher adopted quasi-experimental design with ten (10) participants. The instrument for data collection was Rosenberg self-esteem scale, Perceived self-efficacy scale, Craig locus of control scale, Self stigma scale and perception of stigmatization scale. The result indicated that self esteem has a significant effect on self-stigma (t=5.35, df=118, p<.001). Also, there was significant effect of self-efficacy on patients self-stigma (t=2.80, df=118, p<.001). In addition, there was a significant interactive effect of self-efficacy and locus of control on perceived stigma (F(1,116)=9.54, p<.001). The study was able to establish the efficacy of Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in improvement of self-esteem (t=-8.67, df=18, p<.001), self efficacy (t=-9.16, df=18, p=<.001) and reduction of self stigmatization (t=8.24, df=18, p<.001). It is thereby concluded that self-esteem and self-efficacy significantly influence self-stigma. Also, there similarly, CBT also led to the reduction in self stigmatization among the patients. It is therefore recommended that certain psychological factors have been implicated in the level at which mental patients will perceive or stigmatize themselves. In addition, Cognitive behavioral therapy should be employed among mental health practitioner as a intervention package for reduction of self stigma among mentally ill patients.
Exploring the attenuating influence of organisational communication and restorative strategy on subjective job insecurity in merged banksSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 22, pp 23 –38 (2014)More Less
Although, theoretical arguments about the attenuating influence of positive organisational communication and restorative strategy on subjective job insecurity have been made in the literature, no research has investigated this possibility in the Nigerian banking sector where triggers of job insecurity such as mergers, acquisitions, layoffs and downsizing are an increasing phenomenon. This study examines the attenuating influence of organisational communication and restorative strategy on reported job insecurity and tested their interaction with relevant demographic variables. Data were obtained from 215 employees in three merged banks located in a major Nigerian city using a questionnaire. Results indicated that employees who perceived higher levels of positive organizational communication and restorative strategy practices reported significantly lower levels of job insecurity compared to employees who perceived lower levels of organisational communication and restorative strategy. Contrary to hypothesis, there was no significant interaction effect of organisational communication, restorative strategy and age. Having or not having a mentor affected the attenuating influence of organisational communication and restorative strategy on job insecurity. Practical implications of findings for intervention in the banking sector are discussed.
Source: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 22, pp 39 –49 (2014)More Less
Across the urban areas of Nigeria, there are many children working and or living on the street. While their predicament is visible and obvious, the societal perception can help reverse or perpetuate their situations. Drawing on recorded interview with residents, parents and professionals, this study examines the public perception of street children in Ibadan, Nigeria. The content analysis of data shows that urban residents' perception of street children is shrouded in negativity. It was also revealed that the problem of street children persists largely as a result of parents' perception of children as useful "helping hands" or as "mini adults" who are capable of supplementing family income. The professional perceptions of street children have been useful in understanding the persistency of child streetism in our society. As a measure to help reverse the negativities attached to the phenomenon of street children, the study enlighten the general public to change their negative perception of these children and see them as victims of institutional, parental and societal failures. The parents are also advised to behave to their responsibilities and protect their children's right to education, association and health.
Source: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 22, pp 50 –58 (2014)More Less
Training is an organized approach to positively impacting individuals' knowledge, skills, and attitudes in order to improve individual, team, and organizational effectiveness. Training gives organizations access to resources that will allow them to compete successfully in a changing environment, and to plan for and accomplish set goals. Effective training helps corrects employee and organizational deficiencies. However, poor, inappropriate, or inadequate training can be a source of frustration for everyone involved. Training typically posses a number of challenges and every training process brings with it a number of questions that managers must answer. Therefore there is need for organizations and managers to understand, plan for, and critically evaluate training. Based on the aforementioned needs, this paper examines processes, benefits, and issues in training evaluation. Among the issues discussed in the paper are the meaning of training evaluation and why training evaluation is necessary; measuring training's effectiveness and impact; Kirkpatrick's four levels of evaluation; and issues with training evaluation. The paper concludes that effective training evaluation is necessary for successful management of training programs and organizational growth and development. Therefore properly evaluating training requires managers to think through the purposes of the training, the purposes of the evaluation, the audiences for the results of the evaluation, the points or spans of points at which measurements will be taken, the time perspective to be employed, and the overall framework to be utilized.
Assessment of developmental capacities of Nigerian infants and children using Denver Prescreening Developmental Questionnaire (DPDQ)Author Esther F. AkinsolaSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 22, pp 59 –70 (2014)More Less
The Denver Pre-screening Developmental Questionnaire (DPDQ) was adapted and used to establish trends in developmental capacities of Nigerian infants and children. 1153 Infants and Children, consisting of 613 males and 540 females, randomly selected, and presumed to be normal served as participants. Their ages ranged between 2 and 72 months. The participants were sampled from Lagos Island, Lagos Mainland, Lagos West and Lagos East, all within Lagos city. The questionnaire administered covered four developmental function areas namely: gross motor, fine motor adaptive, personal social and language. Results obtained revealed sequential developmental capacities of the children studied and thereby make the DPDQ adaptable as a developmental screening device for Nigerian children.
Psychological factors as predictors of adult learning in selected study centres in Ibadan Metropolis, Oyo StateAuthor Ezeokoli Rita NkirukaSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 22, pp 71 –79 (2014)More Less
This study discussed some psychological factors that affect adult learning in selected study centers in Ibadan Metropolis Oyo state. Survey research design was adopted for the study. Convenience sampling technique was used to select sixty four (64) adult participants (22 males and 42 females), from the three study centers organized by the Department of Adult Education, University of Ibadan. A questionnaire titled Adult Psychological Scale (APS), (r=0.89) was used for the study. Two hypotheses were tested. The result of the first hypothesis showed that the joint effect of Memory, Concentration, ability to Absorb/Recall, and Judgment) on Adult Learning was significant (F (4, 59) = 16.352; R = .725, R2 = .526, Adj. R2 = .494; P < .05. The second hypothesis showed that the individual effect of each of these variables on adult learning was also significant Memory (β = .277, P <.05), Concentration (β = .252, P <.05), ability to Absorb/Recall (β = .315, P <.05) and Judgment (β = .198, P <.05). In conclusion, the study showed that understanding the psychological factors that affect adult learning is important for success in teaching the adult learners. The adult educator should therefore try to understand the psychological characteristics of adult learners so as to help them benefit from adult learning experience.
Insight into illness in a sample of Nigerian patients with schizophrenia : sociodemographic and clinical correlatesSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 22, pp 80 –91 (2014)More Less
Majority of studies evaluating insight in schizophrenia conducted in western countries have shown diverse associations between insight and various sociodemographic and clinical factors. The objectives of this study were to assess insight in a sample of Nigerian patients with schizophrenia. Seventy patients diagnosed with schizophrenia were recruited into the study from the mental health units of the Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospital Complex. Participants completed a semi-sociodemographic and illness-related questionnaire, the Insight Scale for Psychosis (ISP). The psychopathological symptoms were assessed with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. Analysis was done with the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software, version 16 (SPSS for Windows, 2007). The number of relapses and hospitalizations correlated with the "ability to re-label experiences" and "insight in need for treatment items" of the ISP. All the three items of the Insight Scale for Psychosis negatively correlated with the PANSS positive, PANSS negative and PANSS general. Some of the illness-related factors and PANSS subscales were observed to have predicted the three items of the Insight Scale for Psychosis. More studies are needed in our environment to identify other factors that influence insight in patients with severe mental disorders.
Migrant-remittances and socioeconomic development in rural south-eastern Nigeria : the case of Isiekenesi community, Imo StateSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 22, pp 92 –104 (2014)More Less
In spite of the increasing volume of remittances from international migrants, there has been little effort to analyze its development impact in rural Nigeria. This study therefore examined the socio-economic implications of migrant-remittances in Isiekenesi ranked among communities in South-eastern Nigeria with very high number of emigrants. Data collection involved administration of 402 copies of questionnaires, 17 In-depth Interviews and 6 Focus Group Discussions. Factors that led to increase in remittances included reduction in transfer charges, pressing economic problems at home, quest for investment in social amenities and government propelled enabling environment, among others. Insecurity, lack of trust in relatives to effectively manage remittances, and immigration status of the migrant at place of destination were major factors that hindered inflow of remittances. Findings also revealed that remittances had accounted for notable social and physical development of the community; and that apart from financial remittances, the people had benefitted from cultural diffusion and adaptation. The study recommends the removal of remaining bottlenecks such as high remittance-charges, limited number of remitting agencies, and unnecessary delays in the process to serve as incentives for increase in both volume and frequency.
Human capital selection practices and performance of unionised organisations in the food, beverage and tobacco industries in Lagos State, NigeriaAuthor Odogwu Christopher ChidiSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 22, pp 105 –129 (2014)More Less
The objective of the study is to investigate the effect of selection practices on performance of unionised organisations in the Food, Beverage and Tobacco Industry in Lagos State. The adopted research design is the survey method. The organisations in the Food, Beverage and Tobacco Industry in Lagos State constitute the population of the study. The target respondents for the survey were the executive management and senior employees in charge of human resource management functions. The proportional stratified sampling method was used to select equal sample of thirty (30) from each of the organisations surveyed. A total of four hundred and twenty (420) research subjects were drawn from fourteen respondent companies. However, 284 copies of questionnaire were properly completed and used for data analysis. This represents 68 per cent response rate. Validity estimate is 0.90 while the Cronbach's Alpha is 0.81 being the reliability coefficient of the instrument. The hypothesis for the study was tested using the Pearson Product Moment Correlation, Regression Model and Chi-square test of goodness-of-fit at 5 per cent level of significance. The result of hypothesis test shows that selection practices exhibited positive and significant relationship with all measures of performance. Rate of sales (r = 0.272; p< 0.01); innovativeness (r = 0.261; p< 0.01); growth in employees (r = 0.232; p< 0.01); performance stability (r = 0.235; p< 0.01; operational efficiency (r = 0.227; p< 0.01); public image (r = 0.146; p< 0.05); staff morale (r = 0.201; p< 0.01); adaptability (r = 0.183; p< 0.01); market share (r = 0.143; p< 0.05); and profitability (r = 0.174; p< 0.01). The Chi-square test of goodness-of-fit also confirmed that selection practices affect performance of unionised organisations (x2 = 130.19, df =2, p< 0.01). The regression model also confirmed the same result. From the foregoing, it is recommended that organisations should put in place policies to guide the conduct of selection practices in order to achieve optimal performance. Government policies on preferential quota system and Federal Character Principle with respect to selection in some public sector organisations need to be re-examined with a view to improving performance of such organisations. Thus, for organisations in the Food, Beverage and Tobacco industry to achieve quantum leap in their performance indices, the selection function must be properly and professionally practised to yield the required results.
Traditional practices and belief systems as factors influencing access and enrolment of children with intellectual disability in special schools in GhanaAuthor Yao E. YekpleSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 22, pp 130 –139 (2014)More Less
There is heightened concern about the need to provide equal access to education for children with disabilities globally due to the well known marginalization and exclusion over the years. There is also evidence showing that Ghana is making frantic efforts to provide effective special education services for children with disabilities. However, despite this positive development, there are innumerable challenges facing the education of children with intellectual disability in Ghana. This study therefore, explored both teachers and parental opinions on the influence of traditional practices and belief systems in the education of children with intellectual disability. One hundred and eighteen (118) participants comprising 59 male and 46 female trained special educators, 10 parents, 1 male and 2 female staff in assessment were involved. Questionnaire and semistructured interviews guides were used to collect data. The chi-square test and descriptive statistical methods were used to analyze data. The results revealed that negative traditional practices and belief systems exist and influenced the acceptance and enrollment of children with intellectual disability in education in Ghana. The concluding pinpoints the needs for government and the chieftaincy ministry to give greater attention to the education of the public on the effects of the embedded traditional practices that affect the educational rights for children with intellectual disability.
Organizational justice, perceived inequality and job redesign as predictors of intent to quit among bankers in NigeriaSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 22, pp 140 –153 (2014)More Less
This study explored organizational justice, perceived inequality and job redesign as predictors of intent to quit among some bankers in Nigeria. Ex-post facto research design and purposive sampling technique were adopted. 258 male and female staff of Access Bank PLC participated in the study. Four hypotheses were tested in the study. It was found that management staff (x =17.73) significantly scored higher on turnover intention than non-management staff (x = 15.36), t (256) =-3.239; p <.05. There was also a significant joint influence of work inequality, procedural justice, interactional justice and job redesign on turnover intention (R2 =.008; F (4,253) =7.17; P<.01). However, only procedural justice independently influenced turnover intention while others did not. Similarly, there was a significant joint influence of marital status, job category and educational background on turnover intention (R2 =.155; F (3,254) =16.67; P<.01). However, only marital status independently influenced turnover intention while others did not. Lastly, results showed that female staff (x =15.74) did not significantly score higher on turnover intention than the male staff (x = 15.57), t (252) =-.338; p >.05. Hence, conclusions and recommendations were made as follows; that organizational, psychological and demographic factors are jointly responsible for turnover intention among employees; that human resource managers and employers of labour should actively control for all factors that could cause employees to be dissatisfied. Thus, future studies on turnover intention should investigate the influence of other personality, demographic and organizational factors on employee turnover intention.
The psychological implications of bereavement on some selected widows and widowers in Oyo Town, NigeriaAuthor Olusola Joseph AdesinaSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 22, pp 154 –158 (2014)More Less
This study examined the psychological implications of Bereavement on some selected Widows and Widowers in Oyo Town, Nigeria. The descriptive survey design was used while 100 sample was selected using simple random sampling technique out of the target population. The self designed Questionnaire (2WPIQ) was used to collect the data from the sample. The questionnaire has two sections. Section A contained the biographical data while Section B has 20 items rated in four Likert tail. The Reliability Co-efficient was 0.62 while the data collected was analyzed using the student's t-test statistical analysis. Three Hypotheses were drawn and tested at 0.05 level of significance using 98 degree of freedom. The three hypotheses were significant while a mean difference were noticed among the variables. H01 revealed that there is a significant difference in the psychological implications of Bereaved widows and widowers. H02 showed that there is a significant difference in the psychological implications of Bereaved Christians and Muslims and H03 also indicated that there is a significant difference in the psychological implications of the young and aged couples on Bereavement in Oyo Town. In conclusion, it was found that bereavement is associated with various experiences which needed to be monitored by psychological experts.
Author Joel Matiku JoshuaSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 22, pp 159 –169 (2014)More Less
This was a bivariate analysis that explored the influence of students' experience in past academic success on convergent thinking in Dodoma, Tanzania. A total of 444 students, 217 males and 227 females were exposed to the Assessment of Convergent Thinking Test Using Insight Problems (ACTT) adopted from the Insight Problems tasks (Dow & Mayer, 2004). Their performances on the ACCT were then studied against their experience in the past academic success traced from the school records. An analysis using Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient indicated that there were moderate to strong positive correlations between students' past academic success and their performance on convergent thinking. While school location (being in rural or urban district) had no significant influence on the relationship between past academic success and convergent thinking, that relationship was influenced by the type of school based on ownership criterion. Practical and theoretical implications of the findings are discussed on the basis of the Vygotsky's theory of cognitive development.
Predicting the effect of emotional intelligence, self-efficacy, job interest, life satisfaction and pay incentives as correlates of effective community policing in South-West, NigeriaSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 22, pp 170 –178 (2014)More Less
This study was carried out to predict the effect of emotional intelligence, self-efficacy, job interest, life satisfaction and pay incentives as correlates of effective community policing in South West Nigeria. The participants were three hundred police officers (300) which were randomly selected from South West Nigeria. Emotional intelligence, self-efficacy and life satisfaction scale were adapted while pay incentives and job interest were adopted by the researchers. Multiple Regression Analysis and ANOVA were used to analyse research questions. Finding revealed significant influence of the independent variables on the dependent variable. This buttresses the finding of why policemen and public are still at loggerheads thereby leading to lack of cooperation and ineffective policing in Nigeria. The findings have implications on the public, government, policy makers and authority of the Nigerian police.
Free speech attitudes of Nigerian university students at National Universities Games Association Event in Benin, Edo State, NigeriaSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 22, pp 179 –186 (2014)More Less
This research adopted a descriptive survey design with the use of self-reported instruments to generate data and responses from the research participants. The setting of the study was the main campus of the University of Benin, Edo State, Nigeria where the 23rd edition of the Nigerian Universities Games (NUGA) took place in 2011. The independent variables of the research were socio-economic status, political orientation, age, and gender. The dependent variable was desire for freedom of speech or free speech attitudes (FSA) and this was measured in line with each of the respondent's score on a 20-item, 3-point Likert questionnaire which measured Freedom of Speech. One hundred and fifteen (115) Nigerian athletes consisting of 70 males and 45 females and aged between 18 and 38 were involved in the study. Males constituted 60.87% while females accounted for 39.1%. Their mean age was 23.57 (SD = 5.34). Due to the fast pace of activities and time pressure at the venue of the games, it was not easy to get hold of athletes to participate in the study; hence the accidental sampling method was used. Thirty four of the respondents reported being liberal in political orientation, 36 reported being moderate, and 45 reported being conservative in political orientation. Political orientation was assessed by Peterson (2007)'s political orientation scale. Participants were of different socioeconomic backgrounds. In relation to the variables studied, four hypotheses were tested using simple Pearson correlation, independent t-test, and one-way ANOVA. Results showed that age positively correlated with FSA significantly while political orientation significantly influenced FSA. Results also showed that gender and socio-economic status did not significantly influence FSA. Discussion centered on the way and manner that FSA and factors influencing it can be studied, understood and put to productive use. Specifically, age and political orientation identified as very important factors influencing FSA. It was concluded that age and political orientation are important variables in shaping FSA and a better understanding of them will partly lay a good foundation for citizens' contribution to democratic growth and good governance.
Socio-psychological factors as determinants of reproductive health behaviour among couples in NigeriaAuthor D. OladejiSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 22, pp 187 –194 (2014)More Less
The study established the influence of socio-psychological factors on the reproductive health behavior among couples in Ibadan, Nigeria. A total of three hundred men and women were randomly selected from five different professions in Ibadan constituted the sample for the study. The two instruments used were author-constructed questionnaires with 0.71 and 0.69 reliability co-efficient, respectively. The data obtained were analyzed using multiple regression analysis. The results indicated that significant relationships existed between extramarital sexual partners (B=0.0075; t= 4.985 p. < 0.05), family size (B= 0.0066; t= 3.851 p. <0.05), prenatal care (B= 0.236; t= 3.038, p. <0.05), contraceptive use (B= 0.0271; t= 2.712, p. <0.05) and breastfeeding (B= 0.50; t= 2.680, p<0.05) and reproductive behavior but not with birth spacing practices. The results also indicated that a combination of the independent variables significantly predicted reproductive behavior and relationship (F- ratio= 10.212 p. <0.05). The result therefore, indicates the need for those in the helping professions to design intervention programmers for couples on reproductive health behavior.
Source: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 22, pp 195 –201 (2014)More Less
Boko Haram insurgents in north east Nigeria made many people seek psychiatric treatment because of psychological complications including PTSD. This cross-sectional study used a judgemental (non-probability) sampling technique, to examine post-traumatic stress disorder and psychological well-being among university of Maiduguri students. Two hundred and forty-six (141 (57.3%) males and 105 (42.7%) students with mean (x) age of 22.97 years and SD (± 4.48) participated in the study. The results showed a prevalence of 17.8% for PTSD and psychological well-being had a significant relationship with PTSD (r = .638, df = 245, P =.000). Similarly, marital status (x2 = .000, P = .000), history of sexual abuse (x2 = .003, P = .010) and family history of mental illness (x2 = .000, P = .000) correlated significantly with PTSD. Governments, NGOs and Health Care Providers (HCP) must help provide social support for these people, assist in the treatment (psychosocial interventions/drugs) and prevention of PTSD.
An empirical description of political thuggery and democratization in Kogi State Nigeria, 2003 - 2010Source: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 22, pp 202 –217 (2014)More Less
This study examined political thuggery and democratization process in Kogi State from 2003-2010. The introductory part this paper examined the ethics and tenets of democratic governance and politics which revolve around mass participation and free choice of representatives by the people. Political ethics is concerned with organizing and controlling the distribution of public goods in the society and regulation of social relations to produce peace, justice and harmony among people of a given State. Both primary and secondary sources of data collection method were explored with the administration of 1,600 questionnaires out which 1500 were returned and analyzed. The package used for data analysis was the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). This package made it easier to list the frequencies of different responses and calculate the mean, percentage and standard deviation. The decision rule adopted in this study was such that a response with a mean score of 3.0 and above was taken to have positive effect while any response with a mean score below 3.0 was taken as having negative effect and inconsequential. The paper identified the fact that the political attitude and behaviour of the operators of democracy in Kogi State failed to conform to democratic ethics and tenets. It recommended among others that politicians and all political office seekers should desist from the usage of thugs to win election so as to enable the political process remain democratic and that the National Assembly should enact a law prohibiting thuggery in Nigeria. Such law should make thuggery a treasonable offence.