n IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal - What he wants is not what she wants : using VIE theory to test manager and worker motivation in Ghanaian SMEs

Volume 22, Issue 1
  • ISSN : 1117-1421



The objective of this study was to explore differences in motivation of employees in Ghanaian SMEs using Vroom's VIE theory. Responses were received from 150 managers and workers in 14 SMEs. To test the hypotheses of differences between managers and workers on the various scales, the independent samples t-test was used. The study found statistically significant differences between the valence scores for the managers and workers. No differences were found between managers and workers in terms of expectancy, instrumentality and motivation in general. The results suggest that managers and workers have differences in value of anticipated outcomes. Identifying these differences and motivating managers and workers accordingly could lead to higher productivity and increasing profitability of SMEs.

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