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- Volume 22, Issue 2, 2014
IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal - Volume 22, Issue 2, 2014
Volumes & issues
Volume 22, Issue 2, 2014
Psychotherapeutic allegories and some metaphors of harmony restoration theory and therapy in an African indigenous folktaleAuthor David Okechukwu IgbokweSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 22, pp 1 –13 (2014)More Less
Folktales, narratives, metaphors or stories are psychotherapeutic in nature especially when consciously applied in a therapeutic setting. They assist clients in achieving wholeness in the area of therapy focus. They also educate, entertain and perform other functions depending on the context they are used. While reading, listening to, or even writing their own stories, people tend to understand, feel, relate with and even see a part of themselves in stories. In Africa, when people are bereaved, they are told stories to assist them grieve positively (Nwoye, 2005). This paper elucidates the psychotherapeutic components of folktales or metaphors with focus on "Alabingo" (The land of Bingo), an indigenous (Igbo) folktale translated to English by Pritchett (2004). The story shows cycles of harmony-disharmony within the endocosmos (relationship within oneself), mesocosmos (relationship between oneself and others) and exocosmos (relationship between oneself and higher order beings (God or gods) or other revered things) that the Chief of Bingo went through before he was able to marry a wife and select a heir to his throne. The harmony-disharmony cycle experienced by the Chief were teased out and were juxtaposed with the steps he took to facilitate the achievement of harmony his life. The importance of metaphors in psychotherapy and therapeutic characteristics of metaphors in Alabingo were highlighted and implications for psychotherapy practice in Africa were also elucidated.
Content analysis of West African senior school certificate chemistry examination questions according to cognitive complexitySource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 22, pp 14 –26 (2014)More Less
Using revised Bloom's Cognitive Taxonomy Scale as a major categorization tool, this paper presents a content analysis of cognitive complexity of West African Senior School Certificate Chemistry Examination questions constructed by the West African Examinations Council (WAEC) between the periods of 2008-2012. The research data consisted of 230 questions from 5 Senior School Certificate Chemistry Examinations conducted by the WAEC between 2008 and 2012. Qualitative approach and content analysis method were employed in the research. The knowledge components (factual, conceptual, procedural, meta-cognitive), the categories of the cognitive skills (HOCS and LOCS) and the Expanded Framework for Analyzing General Chemistry Exams (EFAGCE) form the basis of the coding scheme used to analyzed data collected (examination questions). The examination questions were coded by two independent raters. The inter-rater reliability was high. The findings of this study indicate that the majority of the questions constructed by the WAEC required LOCS. In addition, both the HOCS-type examination questions and LOCS-type examination questions were not evenly distributed for the period of examination considered in this study.
Author Adote AnumSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 22, pp 27 –35 (2014)More Less
The Raven's Progressive Matrices test was developed as a test of Spearman's concept of general intelligence or index of g which measures an ability that is not influenced by external factors. The purpose of this study was to develop local norms for children in Ghana and to test the hypothesis that test scores on the progressive matrices are not influenced by socio-cultural factors. Seven hundred and sixty-three children selected from both urban and rural locations were administered with the Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices. We found expected gradual developmental change in scores associated with increase in age. This increase was different for children from urban and rural populations. Children from rural areas consistently lagged behind in test scores and this difference got bigger between nine and eleven years. We associate the difference between urban and rural children to differences in socio-economic opportunities and conclude that these are two different populations and therefore need to have different comparative norms. The findings also challenge the perceived notion that the progressive matrices measures ability that are not influenced by education and cultural factors.
Author Ejike OkonkwoSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 22, pp 36 –41 (2014)More Less
Many of the women in this part of the world who have made inroad into paid employment are found in the banking sector with its built-in time demands which required them to spend long hours in the office despite the traditional gender-role socialization which force them to spend a lot of time on domestic responsibilities. Against this background, this study investigated work-family time conflict (time-based work interference with family and time-based family interference with work) relationship. Participants comprised 81 female bankers between the ages of 27 to 40 years (M=31.55) drawn from three branches of Fidelity bank in Enugu metropolis using Multi-stage sampling technique. Eight (8)-item Time-based Work Interference with Family and 6-item Time-based Family Interference with Work Scales drawn from Okonkwo (2011) 32-item Work-family Conflict Scale were administered. Correlational design was used. Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient revealed no relationship between time-based work interference with family and time-based family interference with work (p > .05). This result was discussed in the light of Role Strain Theory. It was concluded that time-based work interference with family was not related to time-based family interference with work among this segment of women. Thus, despite the long hours spent on job responsibilities, Nigerian female bankers still balanced their work time and family time.
Demographic variables predicting employees' willingness to share tacit knowledge in service occupationsAuthor Anthony G. BalogunSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 22, pp 42 –49 (2014)More Less
Review of literature on tacit knowledge sharing revealed a dearth of empirical research on the connection between demographic variables and willingness to share tacit knowledge. This study therefore extend tacit knowledge sharing literature by exploring the influence of age, gender, job tenure, and educational level on willingness to share tacit knowledge among 328 (nurses = 258; doctors = 70) health workers, whose ages averaged 32.35 (SD = 2.97). Results showed that willingness to share tacit knowledge increased with age. Employees with longer job tenure also reported high willingness to share tacit knowledge than employees with short job tenure. Moreover, female health workers were more willing to transfer tacit knowledge than male health workers. Moreover, willingness to share tacit knowledge increased as employees' level of education increased. This suggests that management of service occupations may need to consider these demographic variables when designing knowledge management policy.
Source: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 22, pp 50 –57 (2014)More Less
The study examined the influences of locus of control on real and perceived relationships among adolescents using 300 participants. The population sample was incidentally drawn from 2 secondary schools in Awka town of Anambra State. Their ages ranged between 14-19 years with M age of 16.20 and SD age of 3.48. The participants included 200 females and 100 males. Two instruments were used for the study. They included the Nowicki-Strickland Internal - External Locus of Control Scale for children by Nowicki and Strickland (1973) and Emotional - Social Loneliness Inventory by Vincenzi and Grabosky, (1987). A cross sectional survey design was used while regression analysis and multivariate statistics were used in data analysis. The result of the study showed that locus of control is a moderate predictor of real and perceived relationship; B = 0.27 (Isolation), B= 0.21 (Loneliness). On other hand, locus control showed significant difference on real and perceived relationship respectively. Discussions and recommendations of the study were done in line with the findings.
Assessment of job stress among clinical health workers in three selected health-care industries in Lagos State, NigeriaSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 22, pp 58 –63 (2014)More Less
The study was designed to empirically assess job stress in three selected health-care industries in Lagos State, Nigeria. Also, the study investigated the job stress related symptoms and means of controlling such among clinical employees in health-care industry. Two hundred and ninety randomly selected employees took part in the study. A valid and reliable instrument was used for data collection. This instrument was tagged Job stress and workers' productivity (JSWP). Data analysis involved descriptive statistics and regression analysis as inferential statistics. The results showed that 86.2% of the sampled population in health-care industry experienced one form of job strain or the other, while 30.5% of the total variability of clinical employees' job stress in health industry is accounted for by management action and discrimination at work (R2 = 0.305; F = 23.291, P > .05).This study further revealed the job stress related symptoms experienced by employees in health industry. It was further shown in this study that 6.9% depend on pills to reduce stress, 25.9% do exercise, and 44.8% relax on weekends, while 22.4% had no means of reducing stress. The study concluded that the concept of stress or job strain is highly relevant to the clinical workforce in health industry and if not properly understood by the management board, its adverse effect on patient outcomes, patient safety, and quality care will be enormous.
An empirical investigation of some social and economic remittances from relatives to the elderly Edo peopleSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 22, pp 64 –71 (2014)More Less
This study explored the level of some socio-economic remittances from relatives to the elderly in Edo Central. It focused on the range of income/financial assistance; revealed the regularity of assistance with food, clothing, laundry and medicine. A total of 514 respondents, 65 years and above, selected by systematic random sampling completed the face to face interview and administered with a questionnaire. The results indicated very poor level of assistance from relatives to the elderly people. The elderly male respondents (37.5%) who indicated not, at all receiving food items were in excess of their female counterparts (23.6%). Precisely 30.7% had no assistance to launder their clothing and 29.9% of the respondents indicated that they were not assisted with medical needs by relatives. It is recommended that the ageing population must not be left to fend for themselves and old age should not be made to look like punishment by abandoning the elderly.
Ritual female genital mutilation : a psychosocial analysis of a flourishing rather than a dying tradition in Oworonshoki community, Lagos, NigeriaAuthor John Lekan OyefaraSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 22, pp 72 –83 (2014)More Less
Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a flourishing rather than a dying traditional practice in contemporary Nigeria. This article adopts psychosocial analysis model in order to understand the dynamics of the persistence and flourishing nature of this traditional practice in spite of its de-medicalization and criminalization in the country at tripartite macro, meso and micro levels. To achieve this objective, a non-experimental research design was adopted. In the design, cross-sectional survey and in-depth interview research methods were utilized. A total 350 questionnaires were administered during the survey among ever married women, while 25 in-depth interviews were organized for different stakeholders in the study location to complement survey data. Elicited data were analyzed with the aids of quantitative and qualitative analytical techniques. Findings at macro-level reveal the psychosocial context/environment of the FGM as a practice that is strongly rooted in the culture, economic and belief system of the people. The meso analysis shows the psychosocial mechanism/support for the FGM in the study population. This mediating process that occurs at inter-personal cum personal levels reinforces and sustains the continuation of the practice. Thus, FGM is a practice that has both social and psychological origin. The micro-analysis reveals the psychosocial effects/outcomes of FGM on the affected women. Many of the women that had undergone FGM are more likely than uncircumcised women to experience pain during sexual intercourse, phobia when spouse calls for sex due to traumatic experience of previous experiences, and suffer psychological distress and unhappiness in their marriages. On the basis of these findings, psychosocial interventions have been recommended in order to improve the wellbeing and health of affected women in one hand and to stem and reverse the recent increase of the practice in the country on the other hand.
Source: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 22, pp 84 –95 (2014)More Less
The emotional state of citizens towards democratic social contract is considered in the interplay between national leadership and development expectations of citizens. Four categories of emotional bigotry among citizens - hyper-plosive, vocal-plosive, docile, and the docile-plosive were analysed to determine emotional change, conceived as "emotional migration". Emotions of Nigerian citizens were mapped, and found to have moved from positive feelings of love, faith and hope to the negative states of hate, faithlessness, and hopeless. The study identified that emotional changes progressed gradually into bigotry under a continuous circumstance of insensitive leadership. And that the more the migration to other emotional categories, the harder it is for emotional bigots to return to the initial positive attachments to collective goal and happiness. Leaders were advised to be emotional intelligent/sensitive to citizens/followers emotions, and to apply emotional security and emotion building approaches to help leaders/governments, rebuild positive emotions and patriotic spirit.
Awaritefe Psychological Index (form x) in Yoruba language and the psychometric properties of the versionAuthor Olubunmi B. MokuoluSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 22, pp 96 –98 (2014)More Less
The need for indigenous tools in Mental Health Research and Clinical Psychological Practice cannot be over emphasized. Awaritefe Psychological Index (API) is one of the most popular indigenous Psychological tools in Africa, API has been found to have acceptable psychometric properties by several previous Authors. The cultural relevance and usefulness of the instrument for research and clinical practice have been demonstrated by several authors. API, though indigenous, requires translation to other local languages in Africa in order to overcome some language barriers. This study reported the translation effort of the author, in order to produce the Yoruba version of API. Experts in Yoruba studies were involved in the translation of the original English version to Yoruba, Other experts in both Yoruba and English languages assisted in the back translation of the version. 500 Yoruba indigenes residing in Akure and Ado-Ekiti responded to the final Yoruba version in order to determine some psychometric properties of the instrument. The norm for each of the sub-sections of API was established together with the norm for the entire instrument. The inter-sub-scale correlation co-efficient ranged from .18(P<.01) to .59 (<.01). The Cronbach Alpha was .67 (P<.001) and the Guttmann split half co efficient was .76, P<.001). These findings were discussed and appropriate recommendations were made.
Human resource utilization : employers' preference between polytechnic and university graduates in the financial sector of the Nigerian economySource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 22, pp 99 –107 (2014)More Less
This study investigated the manpower demand for university and polytechnic graduates in Nigerian banking industry. A descriptive research survey was adopted and simple random sampling technique was used for the study. Three research hypotheses were formulated and tested at 0.05 level of significance using t-test and correlation statistical tools. Data were collected using self-constructed questionnaire on manpower demand for university and polytechnic graduate in the banking industry (QFMDFUAPG) to obtain information on the demand for university and polytechnic graduates, employee's qualification and employer's preference between polytechnic and university graduates in the banking industry. Two hundred (200) copies of the questionnaire were administered to Human Resource Managers of fifty banks in Lagos State to obtain information on their demand for University and Polytechnic graduates, employee's qualification and employer's preference of workers. The results of the findings revealed that: (i) There is significant difference between the demand for university and polytechnic graduates. (ii) There is no significant relationship between employee's qualification and job allocation. (iii)There is no significant relationship between skills acquired by employee's and employer's preference for polytechnic or university graduates. It was therefore, recommended that the disparity between the demand for university and polytechnic graduates should be addressed to give a level playing ground for both university and polytechnic graduates competing for employment in Nigerian banking industry.
Source: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 22, pp 108 –113 (2014)More Less
The study provides information on sources of coaching efficacy information as predictors of coaching efficacy of Nigerian coaches. 93 male and female collegiate sports coaches of team and individual sports (age: Mean=32.46, SD=.29) were sampled and rated on sources of coaching information questionnaire (r=.72 to .86) and coaching efficacy scale (r=.61 to .87). Findings revealed that 9% of the sources of coaching efficacy information accounted for the explained variance in coaching efficacy. Sources of coaching efficacy information significantly (P<.05) contributed to coaching efficacy of Nigerian coaches. Past experience, coaching preparation, prior success, perceived ability of athletes' skill and perceived social support of parents, school and community has provided information that will promote further studies on coaching efficacy behaviour as it affect learning and performance of athletes. The use of social support mechanisms need to be enhanced for the coaches to promote coaching efficacy behaviour.
Determinants of job hopping experience among private and public sector employees' turnover intentionSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 22, pp 114 –124 (2014)More Less
This study investigated perceived organizational justice, job stress and job hopping as determinants of private and public employees' turnover intention in Lagos State, Nigeria. A total of two hundred respondents selected through convenience sampling technique were used for the study, these comprises 109 (54.5%) males and 91 (45.5%) female participants. These participants were drawn from public and private organizations in Lagos. The results revealed that perceive organizational justice; job stress and job hopping significantly jointly predict employees' turnover intention. Additionally, job stress, job hopping and distributive justice which is one of the dimensions of organizational independently significantly predict employees' turnover intention. There was significant difference in the turnover intention of private and public sector employees.
Source: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 22, pp 125 –128 (2014)More Less
There have been many approaches and treatment modalities emanating from Africa, meseron therapy is a psychological treatment approach which originated from Nigeria. Its tenet is based on the African cultural perspectives and religious belief of rejecting the negative and accepting the positive which may be due to the fact that locus of control in Africa is external. As meseron is now widely accepted in Nigeria and beyond, it becomes even more necessary to provide practical guidelines for its operationalization. In this article, the researchers demonstrate how clinicians- practitioners can use meseron as a therapy of choice in their practice more often by proposing guidelines/ procedures for it usage.
Author Ayodele Johnson OluwoleSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 22, pp 129 –140 (2014)More Less
The recognition of sex in the context of marriage as crime is strange. Men are often accused of exclusively perpetrating this culturally alien offence which exclusively causes enormous trauma to women within the family. This study examines the perception of undergraduates about marital rape among married couples in Lagos metropolis. Multistage sampling procedure was adopted to randomly select 240 respondents on whom copies of a questionnaire were administered. Four focus group discussions and twelve in-depth interviews were conducted. The study found that majority of respondents acknowledged the prevalence of marital rape; they solicited criminalisation of marital rape committed on sick victims. Opposing stiff penalty for marital rapists, respondents however strongly supported psychiatric observation of marital rape offenders. The study suggests that public policy should make divorce a lot more elastic to facilitate the exit of individuals who may feel trapped in tragic marriages which expose them to indiscriminate rape.
Source: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 22, pp 141 –144 (2014)More Less
This study set out to investigate the relationship between counselling within and outside the school setting in Ogun East Senatorial District of Ogun State. One hundred questionnaires were administered and the responses obtained were subjected to statistical analysis. The study found out that people access counselling services for help to choose a career, spouse, to get out of a bad habit, settle marital problems and correct addictive behaviours, among others. The study also found that there is no difference in the perception of in and out of school counsellors on the efficiency of counselling services provided in each case, and that counselling services in-school and out-of-school are relevant to the counselling needs of counselees. Given the findings of the study, it is recommended that efforts should be made by all stakeholders to strengthen the capacity of counsellors to meet the daily challenges of clients in school and out of school setting.
Author Comfort O. Oyafunke-OmoniyiSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 22, pp 145 –150 (2014)More Less
Juvenile Delinquency refers to the antisocial and criminal behaviour involving individuals below the age of 18. Juvenile Delinquency has consistently been a problem in the world, Nigeria inclusive. In Nigeria, juvenile offenders are treated differently from adults, although this has not always been the case. This paper discussed the emergence of the Child's Right act in Nigeria in 2003 which was designed to ameliorate the plight of children and young persons who found themselves on the justice corridor. This paper analysed the major content of the CRA as it relates to Juvenile delinquency, from arrest to committal procedures. This paper revealed that the important first step of legislative reform has been successfully achieved and some machinery has also been put in place at the Federal level and in a few States of Federation (Lagos State in particular), to adequately implement and restore the dignity of young offenders to become good ambassadors of the society. The paper therefore concluded that there is likely to be gaps between the laws on the books and the law in practice in juvenile justice system. There is need for government to set up Monitoring and evaluation apparatus to ensure compliance to the law.