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- Volume 23, Issue 1, 2015
IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal - Volume 23, Issue 1, 2015
Volumes & issues
Volume 23, Issue 1, 2015
The efficiency of the implementation of the physical education curriculum in Nairobi county and Nyeri county preschools, KenyaSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 23, pp 1 –9 (2015)More Less
This paper is based on a cross-sectional survey on the efficiency of the implementation of the Physical Education (PE) curriculum in Nairobi County and Nyeri County preschools in Kenya. The paper focuses on the PE teaching policy, PE learning facilities and equipments, and the teachers' efficiency in preschool PE curriculum implementation. Nairobi and Nyeri Counties were purposively sampled to provide a geographical comparison. The survey involved 99 preschools selected using stratified random and simple random sampling. The respondents included 60 head teachers, 99 teachers, 60 parents and 4 DICECE officers who were selected using stratified and simple random sampling. Data was collected using questionnaires, interviews, observation schedules, resource checklists and documentary analysis. The data was analysed using content analysis and descriptive statistics such as; frequency and percentages. It was found out that the implementation of the preschool PE curriculum was not efficiently done since PE lessons were used to teach other activity areas and teachers mostly supervised children playing instead of giving instructions. PE learning facilities were found to be fairly adequate. PE equipment and materials were found to be inadequate and this was mostly attributed to lack of funds. The teachers were found to be professionally trained thus competent to implement the PE curriculum though professional development programmes such as seminars and workshops were lacking. Recommendations made were that PE should be taught like all other activity areas and the Ministry of Education inspectorate unit should ensure that this is adhered to in all preschools. Provision of adequate PE learning facilities and equipment should be a requirement for all preschools. All preschool stakeholders should be sensitized on the importance of PE and seminars and workshops should be held regularly for the preschool teachers.
Topographic anterograde and retrograde memory for spatial behaviour effects of haloperidol treatments in Long Evan ratsSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 23, pp 10 –16 (2015)More Less
The present study was on the effects of haloperidol injection on anterograde and retrograde topographic memories for spatial behaviours in Long Evan rats. Twelve Long Evan albino rats weighing 0.5 - 0.8 kg (6 males, 6 females) were used for the study. Complex Maze Box of 14 unit T Alley from the Royal Institute of Psychologists, Nigeria were used for spatial learning trials while Haloperidol injection treatment from AGILA SPECLTS Company was used. The subjects were divided into 2 groups: retrograde and anterograde groups. The Mann Whitney U test and Wilcoxon Rank sum statistics were used for data analysis. The findings showed significant differences between retrograde group: before injection and after injection on time spent to run the maze. Similarly significant difference was seen between the retrograde group (before injection) and anterograde group at P<0.03. In addition, significant difference was also found between the retrograde group (after injection) and anterograde group. Overall, the findings showed that retrograde memory is more affected by haloperidol injection followed by anterograde memory when compared to rats that received no injection. The findings thus implicated haloperidol injection drug in retrograde and anterograde spatial memories in the subjects.
Source: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 23, pp 17 –31 (2015)More Less
The rate of self-harm among prison inmates tends to be on the increase globally, often resulting in ultimate self-harm (suicide)if not checked. Such behaviours are often premeditated and may have been nursed as urges in the mind for some time. This study aimed at developing a psychological instrument that would help detect such urges before their full manifestation. Focus group discussions (FGD) were held with 32 purposively selected inmates and open-ended questions administered to 97 randomly selected inmates from Agodi prison. In-depth interview (IDIs) were conducted with 4 purposively selected prison staff. Initial items were validated by 2 clinical psychologists, 1 social psychologist, and 1 sociologist. Themes emerged from their responses which aided the development of the initial 23 items; these items were further scrutinized by 2 clinical psychologists and then administered to 120 inmates randomly selected from Agodi prison. Their responses were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0, giving rise to a valid and reliable 19-item scale - IS-HUS with three sub-scales. Sub-scale 1 measures physical self-harm urges, sub-scale 2 measures verbal self-harm urges, sub-scale 3 measures transferred self-harms. The scale was translated to Yoruba language and retranslated to English language.
Achievement goals and performance in English and Mathematics of senior secondary schools students in Borno State, NigeriaSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 23, pp 31 –42 (2015)More Less
The study investigated the relationships between achievement goals and measures of academic performance in English and Mathematics of senior secondary school students in Borno State, Nigeria. The objectives of the study were to determine the relationships between achievement goals and performances in English and Mathematics, and the contribution of each goal type to the variance of academic performance in English and Mathematics. Eight hundred and twenty-seven (827) students randomly selected from 18 senior boarding secondary schools in Borno State responded to "A hierarchical Model of Approach and Avoidance Achievement Motivation" scale as measure of achievement goals and English and Mathematics tests as measured of academic performance. Hierarchical multiple regression was used to analyse the data. The results reveal significant relationships: among the goals, between learning and performance-avoidance goals with English and overall academic performance; but non with mathematics. Learning goals and performance-approach goals account for the variance in academic performance differently.
Formation of national identity among children in southern Nigeria and the analysis of their attitude of in-group/out-group : an experimental studyAuthor Wakil A. AsekunSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 23, pp 43 –51 (2015)More Less
The paper examined the dynamics of socializing southern Nigerian children amidst prevailing ethno-religious conflicts claiming lives and properties in the northern Nigeria; the consequences of the realities on in-group attitude and out-group attitude of the children were analysed. The study adopted an experimental design and was conducted in a classroom among 55 primary school pupils in Lagos, Southern Nigeria. Results suggested that Southern Nigerian children hold favourable attitudes towards their in-group, but showed unfavourable attitudes towards their fellow children in northern Nigeria (out-group), essentially, due to the prevailing crises in the area; consequently, they expressed a negative national identity. The implication of these findings on the quest for a cohesive national life in Nigeria and other African countries was discussed.
Author Damian D. Osa-AfianaSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 23, pp 52 –59 (2015)More Less
Over the years, the Nigerian Military has participated in many peace keeping operations throughout the world. In each of these cases, the men of the Armed Forces who participated in these operations were never evaluated or screened both before and after the operations to determine their psychological state with regard to their stress levels. The impact of stress on military personnel is a known fact. In view of the highly stressful nature of military operations, this study is to develop an instrument that could screen those soldiers who might be proned to stress before operation and also to evaluate the stress levels of those who have returned after military operations. In the Development and Standardisation of Military Stress Inventory (MSI) an item pool created from a list of situations related to military operation and profession was used to obtain 36 item inventory which was administered to 600 participants made up 150 Army, 150 Navy, 150 Air Force personnel and 150 Civilians (not working in any military setting). A total mean score for MSI of 89.30 with a standard deviation of 24.13 was obtained. The mean score and standard deviation for military personnel was 88.71 and 22.08 respectively. Analyzing data with Cronbach alpha, Guttman's split-half and Pearson Product Moment statistics, the reliability coefficients, both coefficient alpha and split-half range in the 80's. The concurrent validity of MSI is satisfactory with .64. The results were discussed in terms of how the development of MSI met the objective of the study. The values of MSI in detecting stress in military personnel were highlighted.
Author Moses O. OlawoleSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 23, pp 60 –78 (2015)More Less
Accessibility to health care facilities is one characteristic that have the potential to impact the health and well-being of the elderly. Using data from a multistage sample survey of 378 elderly, this study examines intra-urban mobility and gender differences in hospital trips of elderly in the city of Ilesa, South-western, Nigeria. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, Chi-square and ANOVA. The analysis reveals similarity in gender trip rates to hospitals - 63.14% of elderly men and 66.29% of elderly women of the samples visited hospitals for medical treatment during the period under study. Overall, occasional trips frequency accounts for 96.71% of the trips to hospitals. The findings show significant gender differences in trip frequencies, travel distance and mode choices of the elderly. The research results reinforce the importance of intra-urban and gender variations in travel characteristics of the elderly to hospitals.
Source: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 23, pp 79 –88 (2015)More Less
This paper examine the possibility of attaining the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) without gender equity in Nigeria as a society bearing in mind that most of the MDGs are women centered or put differently, they affects mostly the women than the men counterparts. The paper concluded that women are badly treated in Nigeria, it then become extremely difficult to attain the MDGs without putting a total end to undue evil treatment of women in Nigeria. It must be emphasized that while it is important to meet short-term practical of needs of women (a process and usually time consuming and epileptics), it is only when significant proportion of women hold public offices and are given opportunities to initiate, mould and execute public policy and legislation, can they begin to effectively address the other problems faced by women.
Knowledge, attitude and barriers towards children immunization among women in selected rural primary health centresSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 23, pp 89 –97 (2015)More Less
This study explored the knowledge, attitude and barriers to children immunization among women in four selected Rural Primary Health Centres. Immunization coverage rates in Nigeria have remained very poor especially in rural communities despite a plethora of programs and strategies. A survey research questionnaire made up of three trajectories (Attitude, knowledge and barriers to childhood immunization) was used in this study (n= 79, mean= 33 +/-6.9years). This study made use of descriptive and inferential statistic. The SPSS software was used to analyze the data. The study indicates that about 80% of the respondents are aware that immunization services are available at primary healthcare centres, but less than half are aware that immunization against polio is meant for children who are 5 years and below. For barriers, about 53% reported they have no confidence in the quality and safety of vaccines being used while 62% reported that health workers are not sufficiently trained. For attitude, most agreed that immunization make children grow healthy (66%). In this study, knowledge of immunization was a better predictor of barriers to immunization (β = 0.633; t = 2.108; p < 0.05). Mothers could be motivated to have their children immunized by doubling efforts at enlightening them and by reiterating the benefits of child immunization to pregnant women during ante-natal clinics. Good healthcare facilities and improve personnel services will encourage more uptakes of immunization services.
Performance appraisal knowledge : an implication on workplace commitment in a selected commercial bank in Lagos, NigeriaSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 23, pp 98 –106 (2015)More Less
Performance appraisal is a central component of any performance management system that serves as a tool for measuring and achieving performance expectation. This study therefore explored the impact of performance appraisal knowledge on employees' commitment to their workplace. Data for this study were obtained from a sample of 275 bankers in a selected commercial bank in Lagos Nigeria using a battery of psychological tests, namely: Organizational Commitment Scale (OCS) and Performance Appraisal Scale (PAS). The data collected were analyzed by Spearman correlation, linear regression and independent t-test analyses with aim of testing the three hypotheses proposed in this study at 0.05 level of significant. The findings revealed that a significant positive relationship exists between performance appraisal knowledge and organizational commitment (r = 0.18; P < 0.05), performance appraisal knowledge accounted for 3% variation in organizational commitment and finally there exist a significant difference between participants with good performance appraisal knowledge and their counterparts with poor performance appraisal knowledge in their report of organizational commitment. Based on these findings, the study recommended that management should enhance employees' awareness of performance appraisal system in their organizations so as to improve their workplace commitment.
Source: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 23, pp 107 –112 (2015)More Less
Terrorism is a hydra-headed global phenomenon but it has recently become a recurring menace in Nigeria, unleashing trauma, fear and psychological disorientation on individuals and the Nigerian society. Currently the news of any terrorist attack sends shock waves through the spines of Nigerians followed by apathy. The terrorists' strategies draw the attention of the local populace, the government, and the world to their cause. Such strategies which include acts of violence and wanton destruction of lives and properties, abduction and sexual violence are accompanied by traumatic effects on the victims, the general populace and Nigerian youths in particular. This study assessed the impact of persistent terrorist attacks on the individuals and the society. In doing this a Terrorism conceptualization and impact questionnaire was developed, factor-analysed and administered to 531 youths and older adults with age ranging between 15 and 75years. In the sample 307 are youths (15-24yrs) while 224 are older adults (25-75), with 279 males and 252 females. After the factor analysis of the questionnaire items 20 out of the 34 items in the questionnaire assessed the impact of terrorist attacks on Nigerian youths and adults. The impact factors assessed are social impact, psychological impact divided into psychological distress and helplessness, intervention impact and cognitive impact. Results obtained indicated that older adults experience higher levels of psychological distress and helplessness than the youths. Older adults also demonstrated higher level of intervention initiation than the youths. However there were no significant differences in the cognitive and social impact of terrorism between the youths and the older adults studied. The results were discussed within the existing literature on effect of terrorist activities on people in general and Nigerians in particular. It was concluded that further research is needed in which the items for social, cognitive and intervention impact will be increased to boost the validity of the research results.
Counselling intervention in the provision of psycho-social support for widows : empirical evidence from NigeriaAuthor Titilola A. AdebowaleSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 23, pp 113 –119 (2015)More Less
Everyone needs adjustment to get along or survive ones social and physical environment. The widows in this part of the world need it more than anyone due to the hardship culture has placed on them. The study examined the psychological and social support being rendered to the widows for adjustment. One hundred and twenty widows were randomly selected within the randomly selected local government areas in Ibadan. Psychosocial Support for Widows Adjustment Questionnaire (PSSWAQ), self-structured, with the validity α=0.74 was administered on 120 widows in six local government areas of Oyo state. Two hypotheses were postulated and tested at 0.05 level of significance, Data were analyzed using Pearson Product Moment Correlation and t-test. The study revealed that there is a relationship between psychosocial support given widows and adjustment to life. Secondly, the age of the widows did not affect their adjustment with psychosocial support. It was found that psychosocial support can modify the behaviour of the widows when faced with social and environmental challenges. It was also found that the age of the widows does not affect the support they receive from the populace. Therefore, government, family members, co-workers, business associate and non-governmental organizations should rally round widows in helping them to get out of their fears, have the ability to adjust, remove stigmatization and reduce the rate in which their children indulge in crime.
Role of waste management in wealth creation in Nigeria - evidences from Lagos state waste management authority (LAWMA)Source: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 23, pp 120 –130 (2015)More Less
The concept of entrepreneurship as it relates to waste to wealth by private sector participation (PSP) franchise is considered to have assisted the government create jobs and new businesses for many in contemporary economies, This study essentially try to access whether PSP franchise operators aid in the creation of jobs and how waste recycling affects the creation of small or large business ventures in Lagos State. The data required for this study was gotten through the instrument of questionnaire from the Lagos state waste management authority (LAWMA) franchise operators. One hundred and forty five (145) questionnaires were administered out of which one hundred and twelve (112) were returned for analysis. Two hypotheses were formulated from the structure of research questions. Regression analysis was used to test the hypotheses through the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS 18.0). The result showed that PSP franchise operations have significant influence on the creation of jobs (R2 = 0.132, at P < 0.05) and that waste recycling affects the creation of small or large business ventures in Lagos State (R2 = 0.550, at P < 0.05). The study therefore recommends among others that Waste management authorities should endeavour to provide franchising opportunities to entrepreneurs to create more jobs for the populace and that waste recycling should be regulated and controlled efficiently to encourage more individuals to participate in the processes as this would help to create business for entrepreneurs.
Alcohol consumption, peer influence and secondary school students' attitudes towards school in Katsit, Kaduna State, NigeriaAuthor Bahago T. AnyioSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 23, pp 131 –142 (2015)More Less
This study investigated the influences of Alcohol Consumption peer influence and secondary school students attitudes towards school in some selected secondary schools in Katsit, Kafanchan, Kaduna State. The study adopted a correlational research design and the population of this study was 200 senior students from four (4) secondary school out of 18 Government Secondary Schools in Katsit, Kafanchan. The students were selected using simple random sampling technique. Spearman's Rank Order Correlation was used to test the Hypotheses. The instrument used for Data Collection was Rutgers Alcohol Problem Index (RAPI), Feeling About School Instrument (FASI) and Peer Pressure Inventory (PPI). The findings reveals that there is no significant relationship between peer group influence and students attitudes towards school (P=.178=.100) and there was a positive significant relationship between Alcohol Consumption and students attitudes towards school (P=.001; rho=.339). Based on their findings, it was recommend that parents, school administrators, ministry of education who are partners and stakeholders in the education of children mostly adolescents school be involved more in the affairs of the schools.
Author Emenike N. AnyaegbunamSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 23, pp 143 –149 (2015)More Less
This study examined the effect of cognitive therapy on psychosocial variables (stigma consciousness and social support) and immune system functioning of People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). One hundred and eighty-seven PLWHA (85 men & 102 women) took part in this study. Stigma consciousness questionnaire and provision of social relation scale were used to collect information from the participants. Immune system functioning was measured using CD4 counts. Repeated measures ANOVA revealed that there were significant main effects of cognitive therapy on stigma consciousness and social support. Similarly, significant main effect was found of cognitive therapy on immune system functioning. Stigma consciousness, social support and immune system functioning of PLWHA varied with application of cognitive therapy. The outcome provides framework for understanding the link among psychosocial variables, immune system functioning and cognitive therapy, and has practical application to HIV/AIDS management.
Educational gender-equality and women empowerment as determinants of national transformation : implication for curriculum developmentSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 23, pp 150 –156 (2015)More Less
This study examined educational gender equality and women empowerment on National Transformation. The study adopted a correlational research design; three hundred (300) educated women were purposely selected in Oyo State. Two research instruments were used to pilot the study. The instrument are Educational Gender Equality Questionnaire (EGEQ) (r = 0.78) and Women Empowerment Questionnaire (WEQ) (r = 0.82) multiple regression were used for data analysis. The study raised two research questions viz: what is the relative effect of gender inequality and women empowerment and their joint contributions on national development. The results showed that the independent variables have significant influence on National Transformation. It was recommended that; gender issues should be a National concern; also the curriculum developers should take cognizance of both boys and girls during curriculum planning. Lastly education should be a right to all citizens.
Author A.B. IkporukpoSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 23, pp 157 –167 (2015)More Less
The study assesses the effectiveness of social skills training (SST) in enhancing friendship-making ability of peer-rejected adolescents in Ibadan, Nigeria. A 2x2 pretest-posttest, control group true experimental design was utilized. Eighty four (84) peer-rejected students from two secondary schools in Ibadan, Oyo state whose ages ranged from 11 to 17 years with a mean of 13 were randomly assigned to the treatment and control groups. The treatment group was exposed to eight-week training in SST while participants in the control group received placebo training. The participants responded to a validated Peer Attachment Inventory at both pre and post intervention sessions. The results indicated that the intervention group performed significantly better than the control group and also social skills training predicted friendship making ability among the female and the male participants. The researcher recommends social skills training to be introduced in the schools programme.
Source: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 23, pp 168 –175 (2015)More Less
Although forensic index and substance use are crucial issues in clinical work among mentally ill patients, studies emanating from psychiatric facilities in nonwestern cultures have been relatively scarce. This paper examines this issue in a tertiary health institution. Participants were 259 mentally ill patients (124 inpatients and 135 out-patients) drawn from University of Uyo Teaching Hospital, Uyo (UUTH) in Nigeria. Using a mixed method design, data were derived from a self-report questionnaire adapted from World Health Organization guidelines for substance use surveys, hospital folders and interviews. 169 (65.26%) patients used psychoactive substances while 90 (34.74%) not substance users. Reasons identified for drug use by the patients were to enhance performance (16%), ignorance of the risks involved (12.4%), due to the availability of substances (11.8%), because they are cheap (10.7%), and because many other patients use it (10.7%). Alcohol (14.20%) and cannabis (14.20%) were the most frequently used substances. Of the 169 drug users, 96.44% were brought by family members for treatment while others were brought by Nigerian Drug Law Enforcement Agency for rehabilitation (1.77%) and Court/Federal Road Safety Corps (.59%) for psychiatric rehabilitation. Thirty (17.8%) of the 169 patients with drug-related problems engaged in drug-related crimes but only 4 (13.3%) were reported and only 1 (3.3%) was prosecuted and punished. Intervention programmes in mental health facilities should include strategies for helping patients cope with drug use problems and proper attention should be paid to rehabilitation so as to wean such patients off substance misuse.
Patients satisfaction with nursing care in a maternity unit in South-Western Nigeria : relationship with self esteemSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 23, pp 176 –183 (2015)More Less
The purpose of health care institution is to satisfy the health care needs of their patients. Measuring patient satisfaction has improved services provided by health care institutions. Among factors that influence patient satisfaction, self-esteem of the clients has not received much attention in research. The aim of this study was to assess patient satisfaction with nursing care in a maternity unit and its relationship with self-esteem. A descriptive cross-sectional study in which 100 women were interviewed at the immunization clinic of the Wesley Guild Hospital within six weeks post-delivery was used. Respondents completed socio-demographic questionnaire, the modified La Monica-Oberst Patient Satisfaction Scale (LAOPSS) and the Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale. The mean age of respondents was 29.9 years while mean satisfaction score was 97.98 (SD-15.3; Range-79) with mean self-esteem being 30.15 (SD-6.59; Range-38). Factors associated with higher levels of patient satisfaction were having tertiary education, having 1-3 children, being employed, higher income, higher levels of self-esteem and longer duration of hospital stay. Predictors of patient satisfaction were self-esteem and duration of hospital stay. Self-esteem of women has a strong influence on their satisfaction with nursing care in maternity units. Measures towards enhancing their understanding of the care given to them and promoting their self-esteem are strong components of improving their satisfaction with nursing care.