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- Volume 9, Issue 2, 2001
IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal - Volume 9, Issue 2, 2001
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Volume 9, Issue 2, 2001
Source: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 9, pp I –II (2001)More Less
Extracted from text ... Editorial Winston Churchill asked, "What is the use of living if it not be to strive for noble causes and to make this muddled world a better place for those who will live in it after we are gone?" This issue, Volume 9 Number2, 2001 is a conundrum of papers that are germane to the solutions of many human problems that pervade our societies and the world today. There is much concern within developing and transitional countries that the gap between those who have access to information and those who do not is widening. There is also an increased ..
Moral reasoning among Nigerian and northern Irish children : a cross-cultural comparison using the sociomoral reflection measure-short formSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 9, pp 1 –6 (2001)More Less
The moral reasoning of 10-11 year old Nigerian children (n=37) was compared to children of the same age (n=48) from Northern Ireland. The research employed the Sociomoral Reflection Measure-Short Form (SRM-SF; Gibbs, Basinger & Fuller, 1992) and assessed the measure's usefulness for cross-cultural research. The results indicated that the Nigerian children scored significantly lower on the SRM-SF. The Nigerian 'moral atmosphere' was suggested as the cause of this result due a greater reliance on unquestioning obedience to religious principles or external authority. The SRM-SF performed suitably in this study, suggesting that the measure is appropriate for further non-Western research, particularly with child samples.
Author Ronald E. HallSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 9, pp 7 –17 (2001)More Less
Recent publication of race based intelligence differentials coincides with stereotypes of the "dumb black" -Bell Curve. As a function of same athletes of African descent dominate in basketball and other physically rigorous sports. Although it is assumed, conclusive data establishing anatomical and / or genetic superiority of such athletes does not exist. Athletes of European descent blessed with similar physical gifts underachieve as a function of pejorative stereotypes-Ball Curve. Subsequently, the Bell Curve and analogous works are little more than racist psychology calculated to maintain the social and economic status quo by attempting to negatively influence the intelligence quotient of threatening populations.
Source: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 9, pp 18 –26 (2001)More Less
The study examined menopausal status, timing of menopause and their influence on experience of depression and life satisfaction among 188 working women. The participants were drawn from organizations in Lagos and Ibadan. Results of the study revealed that (I) currently menopausal women experienced a significantly higher level of depression and a lower level of life satisfaction than non-menopausal and post menopausal women. (ii) women who experienced late menopause were more depressed and less satisfied with life than women who experienced menopause on-time. (iii) there was a significant negative relationship between depression and life satisfaction among menopausal women. Based on the findings of this study, it was concluded that menopause, irrespective of the caliber of women experiencing it, is accompanied with varying degrees of depression and lowered life satisfaction. This is because menopause itself imposes various uncomfortable symptoms on the women. It is recommended that menopausal women should see menopause, as a normal phase of life and programmes should be designed to enlighten women about the menopause experience.
Anxiety, locus of control, subjective well being and knowledge of road rules correlates of accidents among public transport driversSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 9, pp 27 –38 (2001)More Less
The present study determines a few differences between accident free drivers and drivers with a history of accidents. Thirty public transport bus drivers with a record of road accidents were compared with 30 public transport drivers free of accidents on their knowledge of road rules an regulations, subjective well being, state and trait anxiety, and locus of control. The data was analyzed using t-tests and the results showed that drivers with a history of accidents had a poor knowledge of road rules and regulations, had a lower score on well being, were state and trait anxious and had an external locus of control. Differences in their personal background and habits have also been discussed.
Author F.A. OluwatelureSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 9, pp 39 –49 (2001)More Less
The study was carried out to compare levels of psychopathology among three groups, namely Pastors, Patients and Police men: 60 participants made up of 30 males and 30 females from each group were administered Stress Checklist 90 SCI - 90 and Religious Affiliation scale. Although, a 2 x 3 ANOVA showed significant group difference across the variables and significant sex difference in anxiety and depression, no significant difference in anxiety and depression, no significant difference existed between pairs of groups on many of the psychopathological conditions, as revealed by Scheffes multiple range tests. Pastors and Policemen were similar to mental patients on some of the variables. The result was discussed on the light of this finding.
Author Kemi OlowuSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 9, pp 50 –57 (2001)More Less
Information is an essential ingredient in any organisation. To a detective, his is a lifetime of nosing around for essential information. The abode of criminals, their past records, monitoring the activities of smugglers, drug barons, organized crimes, arms dealers and so on, require precise, timely and relevant information. How information flows through the chain of command, goals getting attempts at unravelling crimes are examined. It is recommended that adequate financial provision be made for the pursuit of erring members of the public. Cops too should study to know more on the advances in the criminal world. The literature of FBI and Scotland Yard abound in all libraries.
Author Egbe E. IdehenSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 9, pp 58 –69 (2001)More Less
The need for a simple applied quantitative assessment of religiosity is discussed. It is noted that religion has become a potent variable in the understanding the psychology of the Nigerian. Thus, a measure of religiosity would be of considerable value. An inventory of 6 items- the religious Orientation test ROT- is proposed. The results indicate that the ROT is a reliable and valid measure of religious orientations. Two different religious orientations- the deep and superficial religious orientations are identified.
Source: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 9, pp 70 –83 (2001)More Less
The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence of negative symptoms among Nigerian schizophrenics with the view to highlighting the critical aspects of the management of the disorder that require psycho-therapeutic intervention for an improved mental health care system. Fifty consecutive attendants of the Jos University Teaching Hospital psychiatric outpatient clinic with a previous diagnosis of schizophrenia were systematically sampled. Thirty-five (70%) of the subjects were males while 13 (25%) were females. Their age range was between 18 and 60 years. 64% of them have suffered from the disorder for the period ranging from 19 months to 108 months. Those with provisional diagnoses were excluded from the study. Negative symptoms of schizophrenia were assessed by High Ryod Evaluation of Negativity Scale by two-trained graduate psychologists simultaneously. Results indicated that the most prevalent negative symptoms of schizophrenia in the cohort were the domains of functioning, affect behaviour and speech. There was high concordance between the raters on the HEN scale (Kendells's Tau-C = 35.99; P<.05). Remarkable differences in negativity were noted amongst subjects in the domains of behaviour, appearance and speech. Subjects' ethnic background and marital status were identified as determinants of these differences. The implications of findings on psychiatric diagnosis and all ramifications of mental health care were discussed.
A comparative study of the effectiveness of two types of medical curricula using the education experiences of medical students at the University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston, Texas, USASource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 9, pp 84 –99 (2001)More Less
First year students comprising 186 on the Traditional Learning Track (TLT), 24 on the Interactive Learning Track (ILT) and 3rd year students, made up of 214 TLT and 21 ILT students were evaluated using questionnaires. One hundred and ten students responded: 24 (100%) ILT, 18(9.7%) TLT of the 1st year, and 17 (81%) ILT, 51(23.8%) TLT for the 3rd year. Forty one point seven per cent of the 1st ILT compared with 33.3% TLT responded that their educational experiences prepared them well for clinical clerkship. These motivated reading in 41.7% ILT and 33.3% TLT students, and further research in 41.7% of ILT and 0 (0.0%) of TLT students; 62.5% of ILT students responded that active learning was encouraged, and that retention of information was assisted in 45.8%; corresponding figures for the 1st TLT was 16.7% and 33.3%. Positive transfer of knowledge into clinical experience occurred in 45.8% and 50% of 1st year ILT and TLT respectively. Sequencing and pacing of study items affected the learning process positively in both curricula. Regarding the 3rd year students, 70.6% ILT students responded that their tutorials prepared them well for clinical clerkship as against 41.2% of TLT students. Motivations of further reading occurred in 52.9% (ILT), 43.1% (TLT) and further research were motivated in 52.9 (ILT) and 19.6 (TLT) respectively. Active learning was positively encouraged equally (47.1%) and retention of information occurred in 41.2% of ILT and 35.3% of TLT student; this information was transferred into clinical experience in 52.9% of ILT, but only in 7.8% of 3rd TLT students. Pacing and sequencing of clinical cases affected their learning process almost equally. All students on the ILT programme responded that their tutors had positive attitude, were collegial and aided their learning process. The TLT students found their lecturers to be collegial in 77.8% (1st year), 70.6% (3rd year); they aided learning process in 72.2% (1st year TLT) and 80.4% 3rd year TLT.
The pattern, causes and management of student non-conforming behaviour in Nigerian secondary schoolsSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 9, pp 100 –112 (2001)More Less
The study examined the pattern and causes of non-conforming behaviours of students of secondary schools in Nigeria, as perceived by teachers. It also researched into the management of these behaviour by the teachers. Two hundred and forty secondary school teachers drawn from the four divisions of Ogun State, Nigeria took part in the study. The findings revealed that the prevalent non-conforming behaviour of the students are: lateness, disobeying rules, insulting fellow students, leaving school before time, using abusive language, absenteeism, stealing, quarrelling, disrupting classes, cheating in examinations and tests, leaving school without permission, aggressiveness, fighting and bullying. These behaviours are caused by the students intelligent, society, peer group, age of students, the home, curriculum and location of school. Among the techniques used by teachers to manage these behaviours are: warning, private talk, sending to principal, recording of behaviours, consulting parents, giving extra home-work, isolating the students and involving students in school administration.
Author William BoatengSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 9, pp 113 –126 (2001)More Less
The topic, a study on the psychology of land use; the case of Eastern Region of Ghana was chosen based upon an empirical starting point of over-exploitation of land and its resources which naturally support the rural economy of the country. The main objective of the study was to asses, the access to and use of land in the study areas. All things being equal, it can be assumed that where farmers have easy access to land on a more liberal tenure terms, they are more likely to farm or manage the land well than where land is acquired on a rigid tenure basis. Secured land tenure regimes offer the best opportunity for promoting sustainable land management in Ghana (Kasanga, 1994). In that same vein, the use of land, it must be stressed, is as important as the access to it. The study was also guided by the hypothesis that lack of secured tenurial arrangements leads to improper use of land in the study areas. Four communities were randomly selected from the four zones in the study district. Forty respondents being farmers and individuals connected with land management were selected from each study community. The grand sample size for the study was one hundred and sixty. The sampling procedure for the study was the multi-stage sampling involving a three stage sampling procedures. Interviewing schedule was adopted as the data collection technique for the study. Based on the strength of the findings of the study. It was concluded that even though access to land was not a problem in the study area, the use of land was not in a sustainable manner. Reasons given by the farmers for the poor use of land in the study area were; lack of access to credit extension services and the adoption of out-dated farming techniques by the farmers. It was recommended among other things therefore that bank loans or credits must be advanced to identifiable groups of farmers who would be individually and severally responsible for the loans. Land it has also been recommended should be used as collateral security to enable many farmers to access credit for farming activities.
Service to the mentally challenged : the case of twin-city special school for the mentally handicapped, Sekondi-TakoradiAuthor Emmanuel Kofi GyimahSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 9, pp 127 –134 (2001)More Less
Educating individuals with mental retardation is one of the priorities for most governments in contemporary societies and Ghana is no exception in this endeavour. In the United States of America, Heward (1996) reports that mental retardation is the "oldest" field and that the first public school special education programmes began in 1896 with classes for children with mental retardation (p. 134). By definition, mental retardation refers to "significant sub-average general intellectual functioning resulting in or associated with deficits in adaptive behaviour, and manifested during the developmental period" (Grossman, 1983, p. 11). Classification system formerly used for mentally retarded which is applicable to some extent these days puts the mentally retarded into four categories namely: mild, moderate, severe, and profound. The mildly retarded are educable; they can perform academic tasks just like the average child provided instructions are tailored to their needs. The moderately retarded are trainable. This group of the mentally retarded needs functional or daily living skills. In giving instruction on academic skills, it has to be confined to basic sight words. The severe-profoundly retarded need great care if they can live to enjoy life. Kaplan (1996) states that people with mental retardation need different levels of support to enhance their independence, productivity and integration within the community. The writer is of the conviction that if services provided for the mentally retarded are accessible and adequate, it eases the adjustments problems the retarded have to face after their training. It is against this background that a look is given to a school for the handicapped.
Author Kehinde A. AlebiosuSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 9, pp 135 –142 (2001)More Less
The research was undertaken to assess the relative learning effectiveness of two models of cooperative learning - Student Team Achievement Division (STAD) and Jigsaw II in stimulating students' attitude towards chemistry. Two hundred and fifty two Senior Secondary School II students divided into three groups were involved in the study and two hypotheses were generated for the study. Results revealed the efficacy of the STAD and Jigsaw II models over the conventional teaching method; based on these findings, recommendations were made.
Source: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 9, pp 143 –151 (2001)More Less
This research investigated the power of measures of approaches to learning, locus of control, and demographic factors to predict the academic achievement of 234 Black South African secondary school subjects. It was found that while these variables were fairly able to predict success in English, they were unable to predict success in Biology or Xhosa. Structural equation modeling was used to further explore the English findings but more emic, indigenous variables may be needed to explain success in the other subjects.
An appraisal of frequency of testing and students' performance in junior secondary school social studies certificate examinationAuthor R.A. AdetoroSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 9, pp 152 –158 (2001)More Less
This research attempts to appraise frequency of testing as it affects students' performances in Junior Secondary School (JSS) Social Studies examination. The results of the finding revealed a statistical significant difference (using the z-test) in the performances of the students based on such variables as frequently tested versus non-frequently tested students, urban versus rural schools, students with quick feedback on tests versus their counterparts without quick feedback. The researcher therefore recommends regular classroom tests, small class size and periods per teacher, quick feedback on tests and regular monitoring of progressive tests as the ways to improve learning outcomes.
Author Adeniyi OlatubosunSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 9, pp 159 –169 (2001)More Less
Child marriage is a class phenomenon which is rooted in culture and religion. This phenomenon is classified among features of developing countries which has been highlighted in anthropological literature as well as old and current demographical data. It is often based on the belief that virginity can only be guaranteed between the ages of 8-10 years. It also serves as a means of forestalling promiscuity in young girls, prevent any mischief and to protect family honour by preventing prostitution. Furthermore, it is practised for economic reasons, for the payment of dowry and bride price. Nevertheless, the practice has a lot of negative effects on the health, psychological, physical and social well-being of the young female child in particular. In spite of the problems associating with the practice of child marriage and teenage pregnancy, several factors have been attributed to this problem, this include the collapse of educational system, ignorance, cost of education, unseriousness of girls as well as household poverty which are reversing the achievements of the past even in areas which hitherto had high rates of female literacy and enrolment statistical data. Basically, the consensual union between a man and woman is one common factor of every marriage, though it may possess diverse features according to the law to which such is subject.