n IMIESA - Clarifier upgrades with high-rate ballasted clarification : water & wastewater

Volume 40, Issue 5
  • ISSN : 0257-1978
  • Author
  • Source : IMIESA, Volume 40, Issue 5, May 2015, p. 34 - 35
  • Accreditation : Department of Higher Education and Training (DHET)



In order to meet increasingly stringent environmental discharge requirements or tighter drinking water qualities, existing plants need to be expanded. Many of the challenges faced when upgrading water and wastewater treatment plants in South Africa are related to capital investment and the availability of space.

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