Induced abortion is reported to be the third leading cause of maternal mortality worldwide. Accra being a capital city with its accompanying problems of rapid population increases and issues of migration also has its own problems with abortion. Figures from the Obstetrics and Gynaecology unit of Korle Bu Teaching Hospital in Accra give abortion as the third leading cause of maternal mortality. However, data from the Pathology unit of the same hospital, show induced abortion as the leading cause of maternal mortality in Accra. This study looks into an aspect of abortion that has been little studied - the reasons behind induced abortions.
The Kassena-Nankana and Ejura-Sekyedumase districts are located in two contrasting agro-ecological zones of Ghana. While the Kassena-Nankana district is located in the dry savannah agro-ecological zone, the Ejura-Sekyedumase district on the other hand is located in the derived savannah agro-ecological zone, and this has implications for fertility. The main objective of this paper is to ascertain using cohort analysis and the district level as the unit of analysis, whether there have been changes in fertility amongst females aged 20-29 and 40-49 in two distinctive districts in Ghana. The study also aims at adding to the scanty literature on fertility change in Ghana. According to the analysis, cumulative births per female at age 29 shows a difference of 0.7 and 1.2 for the Kassena-Nankana and Ejura-Sekyedumase districts respectively, for the two age cohorts. This gives an indication that fertility has slightly decreased among the two cohorts in both geographical locations.
The Central Africa region (CAfR), generally known as the Congo Basin, is an "eco-region" representing the World's largest rainforest after Amazonia. Its importance for biodiversity conservation, livelihoods, human well-being, research and policy-making is already well known. This paper documents given aspects of social and cultural dimensions of natural resource management (NRM) in the CAfR. It argues that these could be of scientific and strategic interest for researchers, practitioners and program designers, if relevantly taken into consideration. Since the mid 90s, countries in the CAfR are implementing profound reforms of their forest management systems. As such, natural resource manipulation is a burning issue here. Ultimately, the paper recommends that scientific and conventional knowledge should unify with local knowledge, sometimes qualified as infra-knowledge, in order to generate sustainable practices of natural resources management.
This article, which is based on research into the livelihoods of Tongu fishermen and their families along the Volta Lake argues that as a result of the unprecedented ecological changes in the Lower Volta in the aftermath of the Akosombo Dam, there was wholesale out-migration of Tongu fishermen and their families from the Lower Volta to the Volta Lake. The new livelihoods fashioned by men and women around the Volta Lake had some important similarities with pre-dam livelihoods, but differed in highly significant ways. Migration meant that access to land and the Volta Lake had to be continuously negotiated with host communities and the Volta River Authority (VRA). While fishing and farming continued to be the main livelihood activities, clam picking and creek fishing were no longer possible activities for Tongu women and men respectively. Even more importantly, there was a transformation of livelihood activities from being organised around the seasonal flooding of the Volta River to being organised around lakeside fishing, a male dominated activity. This had implications for the autonomy of women's livelihood activities and created tensions in gender relations. As well, the organisation of livelihood activities around the Volta Lake have resulted in labour relations and practices between kin and non-kin which have flourished outside the purview of labour legislation in Ghana.
As the current depressing social and economic challenges continue to mount on developing countries today, the younger generation is continuously finding itself pushed into the Export Processing Zones (EPZ) labour market. However, it has not been clear as to how the existing EPZ working conditions influence the perceptions of both the new young (18-23) and older (24-29) EPZ employees. Using empirical data, the picture that emerges from Kenyan garment EPZs is that the prevailing working conditions influence the young (18-23) and old (24-29) (old in EPZ terms) employees differently. This combination of both young and old employees in the EPZ workplace thus presents EPZ operators with a new challenge on how to blend their working conditions to favourably suit the needs of these two age groups.