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- Volume 21, Issue 2, 2005
Institute of African Studies Research Review - Volume 21, Issue 2, 2005
Volumes & issues
Volume 21, Issue 2, 2005
Author Femi AdedejiSource: Institute of African Studies Research Review 21, pp 1 –10 (2005)More Less
Like melody, language and rhythm, pitch and tonality are major indicators of African identity in music. In traditional African musical forms, these elements are obvious, but in contemporary African musical expressions which are influenced by several external factors, it is necessary to know the extent to which the elements have been retained and the level of acculturation. In this regard, this paper is aimed at examining the tonal elements of gospel music in Nigeria, an important genre of contemporary African music. Employing musicological, historical and analytical methods, several works of artistes covering 12 distinct styles of the genre and drawn from the three major sections of the country were examined. The study observed among other things, that contemporary African music as reflected in Nigerian gospel music still retain African pitch and tonal structures to a certain degree and concluded on the indispensability of meaning in African music and the need to preserve Africanness in pitch and tonality. It recommended that Nigerian gospel music should be used by African music composers as additional compositional source.
Author Michael Olutayo OlatunjiSource: Institute of African Studies Research Review 21, pp 11 –16 (2005)More Less
This paper portrays Thomas King Ekundayo Phillips as a foremost Nigerian contemporary art musician. It also beamed a searchlight into his family and educational background, musical endeavours as well as the titles and awards he had won during his lifetime. The field aspect of this research was conducted through interviews with members of T.K.E Phillips' family and some members of his profession. In addition, some of his scholarly works - books, journals, and magazines were collected. Also collected were scores of his choral music, which were categorized and analyzed in order to expound to what extent these have confirmed to the musician's assertions - especially in the area of the guiding principles proposed by him. It was revealed, among other things, that T.K.E. Phillips was the second Nigerian to study music to a baccalaureate level, and also that he had trained many of the prominent Nigerian art music composers that later came on the scene - including Fela Sowande and Sam Akpabot. The paper concludes that, in order to come out with the muchexpected theory on African art music, research works should be done on more composers of diverse nationalities in the continent of Africa.
Author Y.A. AjayiSource: Institute of African Studies Research Review 21, pp 17 –25 (2005)More Less
This study discusses focus constructions in Yoruba <i>ofò.</i> Across ten categories of <i>ofò</i> the frequency of these constructions is very high, and it can be argued that they are structurally important to each text. We suggest that this pattern helps to reduce ambiguity and also to create parallelism between verse lines, thereby enhancing the understanding and perceived effectiveness of this genre of magical speech.
Barriers to successful exclusive breast-feeding practices among rural and urban nursing mothers in Edo State of Nigeria : implications for education and counsellingSource: Institute of African Studies Research Review 21, pp 27 –36 (2005)More Less
The study aimed at investigating the barriers to the successful practice of exclusive breastfeeding among rural and urban nursing mothers in Edo State of Nigeria. The population of this study constitutes all nursing mothers in the rural and urban areas of the state. The study adopted structured and in-depth interview. Four hundred and ninety six (496) urban and rural nursing mothers constitute the sample of the structured interview, while 40 nursing mothers: 20 urban and 20 rural nursing mothers were involved in the indepth interview. The results revealed that 98% of both urban and rural nursing mothers started breast-feeding almost immediately after delivery. However, variations occurred in the duration of exclusive breast-feeding. Only about 42.5%of urban nursing mothers and 51.8% of rural nursing mothers were still breast-feeding exclusively at 4 months. Fifty three per cent (53%) of urban mothers and 67% of rural mothers stopped breast-feeding at 1 year. The study also revealed that 16.7% of rural mothers introduced bottle-feeding as early as 3 weeks. The reasons given by the mothers for bottle-feeding supplementation being that baby was not satisfied with breast milk only, 59.45 of urban mothers and 67.4% of rural mother indicated this. After maternity leave, some mothers indicated that work affected breastfeeding adversely, 15.5% of urban mothers and 14% of rural mothers indicated this. The feeding pattern for most mothers after the leave was the combination of breast and bottlefeeding. About 61.7% of urban mothers and 70.4% of rural mothers agreed that they combined both. The study revealed especially through in-depth interviews, that the major barriers that jeopardize the practice of breastfeeding are age-long myths and beliefs held about breast-feeding, and the nature of the mother's work. Most mothers feel that breast milk alone cannot be enough for the baby so they introduced artificial milk, light, pap, soup and water along-side breast-feeding. There is need for a grass-root approach in educating and counselling of nursing mothers to reduce the barriers to the successful practice of exclusive breast-feeding, so that both the mother and the child can realize the immense benefits of exclusive breast-feeding.
Author Leke OduwayeSource: Institute of African Studies Research Review 21, pp 37 –53 (2005)More Less
The study examines land values in high density residential neighbourhoods in Metropolitan Lagos. A total of 215 residential neighbourhoods were identified in Lagos made up of 184, 20 and 11 high, medium and low density neighbourhoods respectively. 27 residential neighbourhoods in the high density class were sampled with questionnaire administration. Three estate surveyors each from each neighbourhood were also asked about the values of residential land uses, which was used to present the result across the study area. Data used for the correlation analysis were those derived from 27 residential neighbourhoods. The study identified that residential segregation exists in Nigerian cities and the study area. Among urbanization and residential land use problems identified by the study are poor level of social and technical infrastructure, poor land and city management system capacity, paucity of planning laws, funding, poor institutional frameworks and political interference. Also, the findings reveal that there are strong relationships between the residential land value variables employed in the analysis namely rent, cost of purchase of apartment and cost of a plot of land, with the following correlation figures: 0.937 for the relationship between cost of residential apartment unit and rent, cost of a plot of land and rent (0.907), cost of land and apartment unit (0.855). The study also reveals that five categories of cost of rents exist in the study area, while six categories of cost of outright purchase of apartment exist; that of cost of the prices of a plot of land are classified into seven. Infrastructural facilities and economic variables were identified as the two major factors influencing residential land values in the study area, thus there is need to give high priority to these two variables.
Source: Institute of African Studies Research Review 21 (2005)More Less
Extracted from text ... 55 Books Received African Studies in Russia Yearbook 2005. Editor in Chief: A.M. Vassiliev. Translated from the Russian by P.A. Seslavin. Moscow: Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for African Studies (2005). ISBN 5-201-04797-1 Le miracle chinois vu de l'int?rieur: Points de vue d'auteurs chinois. Alternatives Sud Vol. 12. Paris: ?ditions Syllepse; Louvain-la-Neuve: Centre Tricontinental (2005). ISBN 2-84950-089-X Bawumia, Alhaji Mumuni. Memoirs of Alhaji Mumuni Bawumia; A Life in the Political History of Ghana. Accra: Ghana Universities Press (2005). ISBN 9964303351. Distributed outside Ghana by African Books Collective. Price: ?17.95; $28.85. Boni, Stefano. Clearing the Ghanaian Forest; theories and practices of ..