Many explanations exist for the intractable Dagbon chieftaincy succession disputes. The most recent of these disputes in 2002 resulted in the death of the king (the Ya Na) of the kingdom and others. This paper has two sections. The first part takes a historical look at the origin of what have come to be known as the Abudus and the Andanis. The second part analyzes the course of events after the Supreme Court judgment in 1986 on the legal tussle between the Abudus and the Andanis, to March 27, 2002.
The position of this paper is two-fold. First, the failure of the founders of the Dagbon Kingdom to establish a regularized and patterned system of choosing a Ya Na explains the recurring nature of the Dagbon chieftaincy disputes, otherwise called the Yendi Skin Affairs. Secondly, the inability of the PNDC government to enforce the decisions reached and agreed upon, by both parties in the 1987 reconciliation between the Abudus and the Andanis, underlies the 2002 open conflict.
In this paper I argue that the post apartheid South Africa that is represented in Disgrace is a metaphorical borderland where, as with the intractable Eastern Cape border where colonialism was both imposed and opposed, there is no clear cut distinction between self and other. I explore the concept of boundary blurring as a route to re-reading the issue of reparation in the novel, focusing mainly on the boundary of the Eastern Cape as a landscape with a fraught history and a space in which identities are formed and transformed across the boundaries of age, gender and race. I also examine Lucy, a liberal white lesbian, as a "boundary figure" that dismantles regnant ideals and expectations.
Menstruation is still considered by some as waste blood and dirty, leading to the imposition of restrictions on girls at menarche. A total of 300 respondents aged 13-19 years from 3 ethnic groups in two regions of Ghana participated in the study.
A significant relationship exists between levels of restrictions and exposure to sexual risks (p<05). Though misconceptions about menstruation expose girls to sexual risks and gender problems, the public remains oblivious to these problems and they are hardly discussed. Vigorous education is needed at family and community levels to correct misconceptions about menstruation and stop traditional menstrual practices that undermine the wellbeing of females.
Child labour is a complex socio-economic problem for the countries in the developing world. While the ILO publication on Global Child Labour Trends 2000 to 2004 exhibited a secular decline in the number of child labourers aged 5-17 years globally from 2000 to 2004, the number of child workers actually increased in Sub-Saharan Africa from 48.0 million to 49.3 million over the same period. This calls for serious introspection. The present study examines the interaction between child labour, education participation and per capita economic growth for Sub-Saharan Africa in a holistic framework using two-stage least squares (2SLS) regression model and dummy variables to capture the regional and income classifications. The results show that per capita GDP growth rate, public expenditure on education as percentage of GDP, net primary enrollment ratio and percentage of children reaching grade 5 in school are inversely related with the incidence of children's labour force participation, while total fertility rate which reflects population growth, is positively related with child labour. Finally, that child labour is a serious impediment for improved economic performance of the region is reaffirmed from the fact that child labour participation has a negative effect on per capita GDP growth rate for the region as a whole and individually for each of the Southern, Western and Middle African countries. The results suggest that since the problem across Sub-Saharan Africa is closely linked to the region's poverty, it can only be reduced with higher balanced economic growth that increases family incomes and children's educational opportunities.