Interim : Interdisciplinary Journal - Volume 10, Issue 1, 2011
Volume 10, Issue 1, 2011
Source: Interim : Interdisciplinary Journal 10, pp 1 –9 (2011)More Less
This paper will discuss the final implementation of an Improved OPC data logging system and its improvements over the original. The improved solution focused on the hardware, software and administrative components of the system; taking the reliability and performance of each component into consideration. The software components include the database, the data acquisition and logging client application (DALC) and the various OPC servers; the hardware component includes the servers that will run the software components, power management and Redundant Array of Independents Disks (RAID) technologies; and the administrative component includes implementing automated routines to backup the important data and archive old logs.
Development of streamflow forecasting model using artificial neural network in the Awash River Basin, EthiopiaSource: Interim : Interdisciplinary Journal 10, pp 10 –24 (2011)More Less
Early indication of possible drought can help in developing suitable drought mitigation strategies and measures in advance. Therefore, drought forecasting plays an important role in the planning and management of water resource in such circumstances. In this study, a non-linear streamflow forecasting model was developed using Artificial Neural Network (ANN) modeling technique at the Melka Sedi stream gauging station, Ethiopia, with adequate lead times. The available data was divided into two independent sets using a split sampling tool of the neural network software. The first data set was used for training and the second data set, which is normally about one fourth of the total available data, was used for testing the model. A one year data was set aside for validating the ANN model. The streamflow predicted using the model on weekly time step compared favorably with the measured streamflow data (R2 = 75%) during the validation period. Application of the model in assessing appropriate agricultural water management strategies for a large-scale irrigation scheme in the Awash River Basin, Ethiopia, has already been considered for publication in a referred journal.
Source: Interim : Interdisciplinary Journal 10, pp 25 –37 (2011)More Less
To enable meaningful and consistent communication between different software systems in a particular domain (such as manufacturing, law or medicine), a standardised vocabulary and communication language is required by all the systems involved. Concepts in the domain about which the systems want to communicate are formalized in an ontology by establishing the meaning of concepts and creating relationships between them. The inputs to this process in found by analysing the physical domain and its processes. The resulting ontology structure is a computer useable representation of the physical domain about which the systems want to communicate. To enable the long term persistence of the actual data contained in these concepts and the enforcement of various business rules, a sufficiently powerful database system is required. This paper presents the design of a manufacturing ontology and its accompanying relational database schema that will be used in a manufacturing test domain.
Source: Interim : Interdisciplinary Journal 10, pp 38 –51 (2011)More Less
A worldwide concern are focusing on the quality of postgraduate training in higher education institutions, the length of time it takes postgraduate students to complete their studies, and the high percentage of postgraduate students who terminate there studies. Furthermore the involvement in research is making increasing quality demands on higher education institutions in terms of sustaining high-level research capability and involvement on an efficient and effective basis. It is clear that the postgraduate environment will have certain expectations as well as obstacles for the students and therefore if the undergraduate students are prepared beforehand for the postgraduate environment, they will be able to bridge the gap between undergraduate and postgraduate studies more successfully. (113 words)
Time and cost assessment of the manufacturing of tooling by metal casting in rapid prototyping sand mouldsSource: Interim : Interdisciplinary Journal 10, pp 52 –64 (2011)More Less
In this paper the time and cost parameters of tooling manufacturing by metal casting in rapid prototyping sand moulds are assessed and comparison is made with alternative tool making processes such as computer numerical control machining and investment casting (Paris Process). To that end two case studies obtained from local companies were carried out. The tool manufacturing was conducted according to a five steps process chain referred to as Rapid Casting for Tooling (RCT). These steps include CAD modelling, casting simulation, rapid prototyping, metal casting and finishing operations. In particular the Rapid Prototyping (RP) step for producing the sand moulds was achieved with the aid of an EOSINT S 550 Laser Sintering machine and a Spectrum 510 Three Dimensional Printer. The results indicate that RP is the rate determining step and cost driver of the proposed tooling manufacturing technique. In addition it was found that this tool making process is faster but more expensive than machining and investment casting.
Source: Interim : Interdisciplinary Journal 10, pp 65 –73 (2011)More Less
Wheelchair friendliness is an issue that needs to be taken very serious. Awareness should be created so that the owners of the accommodation establishments have a complete knowledge about wheelchair friendliness. The population of the study covered 16 guest houses and 16 hotels in Bloemfontein and only 11 agreed to participate. Other guest house owners were not interested in the participation. Among those guest houses that participated, only few had wheelchair facilities. It showed that there is a lot of ignorance concerning the topic because other guest house owners thought they were wheelchair friendly, just because there is no step at the entrance. A checklist was compiled from literature and adminstered at each estabilshment.
Barriers to the implementation of whole school evaluation at selected primary schools in the Southern Free StateAuthor W.N. SetlalentoaSource: Interim : Interdisciplinary Journal 10, pp 74 –85 (2011)More Less
This study explores the implementation of Whole School Evaluation (WSE) at selected primary schools in two Education Districts in the Free State Province. Both quantitative and qualitative approaches were used in this study. Simple random sampling of schools evaluated were done so as to give each school an equal chance of being selected. Data were gathered from 125 educators and twenty three WSE supervisors using questionnaires. Interviews were also conducted with the Chief Education Specialist: Whole School Evaluation, the parent complement of School Governing Bodies of sampled schools and the Director: Quality Assurance Directorate, Department of Education, Free State Province. Data from interviews were analysed by developing categories and making comparisons and contrasts. The study found that the Provincial WSE unit is faced with a problem of shortage of resources and that the manner in which training on the WSE process is offered to stakeholders is inadequate because the stakeholders are not trained and are not aware of the role they should play in the process. Detailed conclusions and recommendations drawn from this study are included in the article.
Climate change and ecological systems : a conceptual framework for the understanding of socio-hydrological dynamicsSource: Interim : Interdisciplinary Journal 10, pp 86 –90 (2011)More Less
A functioning ecological system results in ecosystem goods and services which are of direct value to human beings. Ecosystem services are the conditions and processes which sustain and fulfill human life, and maintain biodiversity and the production of ecosystem goods. However, human actions affect ecological systems and the services they provide through various activities, such as land use, water use, pollution and climate change.
Climate change is perhaps one of the most important sustainable development challenges that threaten to undo many of the development efforts being made to reach the targets set for the Millennium Development Goals. Understanding the provision of ecosystem services and how they change under different scenarios of climate and biophysical conditions could assist in bringing the issue of ecosystem services into decision making process. Similarly, the impacts of land use change on ecosystems and biodiversity have received considerable attention from ecologists and hydrologists alike. Land use change in a catchment can impact on water supply by altering hydrological processes, such as infiltration, groundwater recharge, base flow and direct runoff. In the past a variety of models were used for predicting land-use changes. Recently the focus has shifted away from using mathematically oriented models to agent-based modelling (ABM) approach to simulate land use scenarios. The agent-based perspective, with regard to land-use cover change, is centred on the general nature and rules of land-use decision making by individuals. A conceptual framework is being developed to investigate the possibility of incorporating the human dimension of land use decision and climate change model into a hydrological model in order to assess the impact of future land use scenario and climate change on the ecological system in general and water resources in particular.
Source: Interim : Interdisciplinary Journal 10, pp 91 –109 (2011)More Less
Planning problems are frequently encountered in everyday situations. The brute force approach of evaluating every possible solution for any medium size planning problem is just not feasible. Drools Planner is an open source Java library developed to help solve planning problems by using meta-heuristic algorithms. Drools Planner uses the Drools Expert (rule engine) for score calculation to greatly reduce the complexity and effort required to write scalable constraints in a declarative manner. This paper presents an introduction to Drools Planner, how it can be used to solve problems and concludes with an example scenario.