Interim : Interdisciplinary Journal - Volume 11, Issue 1, 2012
Volume 11, Issue 1, 2012
Source: Interim : Interdisciplinary Journal 11, pp 1 –16 (2012)More Less
In this paper an evaluation of smart socioeconomic, physical and environmental characteristics of Bloemfontein city of South Africa was done to understand the current scenario of the city and evolve perspective indicative planning guidelines for transforming the city into a smart city. The evaluation was done based on 74 smart indicators, and 30 factors under six characteristics, such as, smart economy, smart people, smart governance, smart mobility, smart environment and smart living. For this purpose, survey research methodology with analysis of primary and secondary data and review of the current Integrated Development Plan of the city was followed. The investigation of the various indicators revealed that although the city is lagging behind in most of the characteristics, yet provides ample opportunity to develop it as a smart city, if smart city concept and smart growth principles are employed in city development process.
Author U.D. HolzbaurSource: Interim : Interdisciplinary Journal 11, pp 17 –33 (2012)More Less
One of the main tasks of universities is to prepare students for an academic or professional career, and to make them responsible members of society by giving them the motivation and skills to create a better future. Education for Sustainable Development is a core feature of education in a university of the 21th century and in society. In a university, it has two aspects: firstly, to educate students and to help future academics to contribute to sustainable development, secondly, to contribute to sustainability and to spread education for sustainable development in the community. We consider examples of successful cooperation between the university and its stakeholders via projects that are relevant for education for sustainable development. We analyse the success factors and the educational and sustainability impacts of these projects.
Author J. JordaanSource: Interim : Interdisciplinary Journal 11, pp 34 –43 (2012)More Less
Vision 2020 represents the preferred developmental way forward for the Central University of Technology, Free State (CUT). It defines the intention of greatly increasing the involvement of its staff and students in innovation and technology transfer activities, resulting in the CUT having a greater effect on the socioeconomic development of the region.
The article describes educational processes that would prepare graduates for such activities, as well as financial and other support measures to assist (prospective) entrepreneurs to convert research outputs into commercially viable products. The potential value to such individuals of participating in formal innovation and incubation activities is also described.
Source: Interim : Interdisciplinary Journal 11, pp 44 –47 (2012)More Less
Research has two important objectives: the contribution to scientific discourse and the identification of solutions for the challenges societies, government, business and industry face. Research should be in the public domain. The publication and presentation of research results are important activities academics need to engage with. Through publications and presentations are societies informed of the positive influence and impact research can bring to them. This paper will focus on the importance of publications and how emerging scholars can be assisted to get their research published. A case study is presented of the Interim, an in-house academic journal.
Author H. LambrechtsSource: Interim : Interdisciplinary Journal 11, pp 48 –57 (2012)More Less
Freedom of religion is a constitutional right of every employee. It is the duty of the employer to respect and honour this freedom of religion of the employee. The question arises what the employer must do if there is conflict between the right to religion and the interests of the business.
The current approach in the South African law is that the courts are of the opinion that employers are not very sensitive regarding the aspects of religion. Case law also favours the employee in case of judgements regarding the absence at the workplace due to religious reasons.
The proposal is made that each case be investigated on its own merits. The approach should still be sensitive, but not so much that the legislation is boycotted. It is also recommended that no specific religion should get preference and that religion and science should work together. All religions must be given the same treatment, but the legislation should still be the determining factor.
Author N.J. LuwesSource: Interim : Interdisciplinary Journal 11, pp 58 –72 (2012)More Less
Limits of artificial intelligent, expert systems are defined by the specific hardware limitation of the specific system. Limits can be overcome, or addressed, by giving an intelligent system web access; therefore giving it access to Google's vast hardware, search functions and databases. Reverse image searches can be done directly in Google's image search bar since October 2011. This reverse image search function is used by the proposed system to do object recognition. Computational creativity, or the ability of a program or computer to show human-level creativity and interaction, is achieved by means of a voice communication of the object identification result to the user. The proposed system interprets the result by doing a definition web search and communicating this to the user. The results show that with the novel interpretation software, it should be possible to use Google as an artificial intelligent, computational creative system.
This proposed system thus has the ability to do object classification by accessing Google's vast hardware, search functions and databases, thereafter would the proposed system search a suitable definition for the classification. All of this information is communicated to the user using voice.
These techniques could be used on an automatic guided vehicle, robots or expert systems.
Author M.J. MotsekeSource: Interim : Interdisciplinary Journal 11, pp 73 –83 (2012)More Less
A study was conducted to determine factors which caused stress for township secondary school teachers. The purpose of this paper is to determine the role of School Management Teams (SMTs) in the stressors of township secondary school teachers. A questionnaire was developed and administered on 368 teachers from the Free State Province. Once the stressors were determined, their means were used to rank them - from the most stressful to the least stressful. Only the highest 30 stressors were considered in this paper. The main stressors were: poor learner performance, poor learner discipline and poor parental involvement in school matters. It was also found that 20 of the 30 stressors were the SMTs' responsibility, seven were the parents' responsibility and three were DBE's (Department of Basic Education) responsibility. It was concluded that SMTs of the schools surveyed were unable to adequately address factors causing stress for teachers in their schools. It was recommended that SMTs should be developed, and then be held accountable for the high levels of teacher stress, and for the subsequent poor performance of teachers in their schools.
Author T. BoshoffSource: Interim : Interdisciplinary Journal 11, pp 84 –94 (2012)More Less
Sunscreen lotions are the skins protection against sunburn. Even though this sounds like a simple fact, somatologists appear to know remarkably little about the usage, ingredients present and their adverse effects on the skin. In the South African Association of Health and Skincare Professionals (SAAHSP) accredited salons of Bloemfontein, 43 somatologists were tested by means of questionnaires in order to determine their awareness and knowledge regarding sunscreen usage, the ingredients in the lotions and their adverse effects. The results were statistically analysed by means of frequencies and percentages which proved that more than half (58%) of somatologists use sunscreen daily, but do not have the knowledge or awareness of toxic ingredients found in these products. In conclusion, most Somatologists in Bloemfontein are not fully equipped with the knowledge surrounding sunscreens in order for them to provide adequate information to their clients. It is recommended that information regarding sunscreens should be included as a higher priority in the professional product house training including the Somatology curriculum.