Interim : Interdisciplinary Journal - Volume 12, Issue 1, 2013
Volume 12, Issue 1, 2013
Source: Interim : Interdisciplinary Journal 12, pp 1 –14 (2013)More Less
The relationship between the postgraduate supervisor and postgraduate student is commonly described in the literature because of the interesting and sometimes even complex dynamics involved in this process. However, the literature is not always very explicit about the specific expectations of those involved. The findings of a qualitative case study, completed at an American research intensive university (Indiana University, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA) are communicated in the article. Despite the complexity of the research supervision process, the expectations associated with the supervision process remains a unique experience of collaborative learning. A commitment is required from each of the role players to communicate expectations initially and continuously. Furthermore it was noted that an environment should be created for students in which they are respected as colleagues.
The impact of HIV/AIDS awareness campaigns on students who enrolled from 2009-2011 at Central University of Technology, Free StateSource: Interim : Interdisciplinary Journal 12, pp 15 –25 (2013)More Less
Central University of Technology (CUT) holds awareness campaigns on yearly basis to educate and test students on health related issues. Basic knowledge about the spread of HIV and safe sexual practices has a critical impact on prevention of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and other associated diseases such as TB. The problem among students at higher education institutions (HEIs) is that they are a high risk group of contracting HIV infection due to uninformed decisions that they end up making. This study aimed to assess the knowledge and attitudes of CUT students towards HIV, sexual transmitted infections (STIs) and sexuality. A cross sectional survey of 120 randomly selected undergraduate students (73 females, 47 males, aged 18-25 years) was performed. Questionnaires were used to assess the knowledge and attitude of the students towards HIV and AIDS. Generated knowledge and attitude scores from the student responses and gender variable were used to study their association. Students had heard about HIV, and 93% understood that HIV is not curable. Ninety percent of the students were aware of the symptoms of STIs, and some didn't know that STIs are associated with an increased chances of having HIV. Participants were well informed about selected aspects of HIV. A high number of participants were conversant with the modes of spread of HIV and the use of condoms in preventing STIs and HIV infection. The gap of knowledge between males and females, and the way they attend to the testing facility suggests the need for targeting males in the national awareness campaigns. The Medical Center should continue to host and fund health awareness campaigns because they play a major role as source of information.
The role of toilet hygiene in transmission of vaginal and urinary tract infections in Huis Welgemoed, CUT CampusSource: Interim : Interdisciplinary Journal 12, pp 26 –31 (2013)More Less
The 2012 residents of Huis Welgemoed, a residence for female students at Central University of Technology, Free State Bloemfontein Campus have reported a high prevalence of infections of the vagina and the urinary tract. They assume that this problem is associated with poor hygienic conditions in the toilets of their residence. However, this assumption may not be entirely true, as other factors may also contribute to their problem. Previous studies have shown that there is an evident relation of vaginitis and urinary tract infections (UTI) among students and the practices of personal hygiene or the level of toilet sanitation in their residences. Especially in facilities where the students have complained about the hygiene state of their residence toilets as unsatisfactory. This preliminary study has shown that the residence conforms to the standards set out by the S.A. requirements for toilets in student housing of 1 toilet per 6 students and that the cleaning materials and methods used by staff are adequate. Interestingly, the authors have found that a lack of knowledge around UTI's and VI's regarding basic prevention strategies is most probably the cause of the high incidence of these two types of infections.
Author H.A. RobertsSource: Interim : Interdisciplinary Journal 12, pp 32 –41 (2013)More Less
Increased waste generation and poor waste disposal strategies are a global problem. In South Africa most provinces, and the larger municipalities and metros, seems to have the waste disposal and the landfills reasonably organized. This cannot be said of the landfills in the Free State Province, which could only be called dump sites. In the Free State Province a high unemployment level exists and a lack of finances is experienced by many members of the communities, especially in rural areas. Poverty levels is shown in a study by Adventist Development and Relief Agency (ADRA SA), where it was recorded that 1.8 million (68%) of the people in the Free State Province are living in poverty and living on less than R15 per day. Data on the state of the landfill, types of waste generated which have potential to be recycled, were recorded to assess if recycling could be increased to relieve the economic burden of the poor communities. Attention was paid to the following aspects: assessing the current status of each landfill and identifying the types of waste generated in the area which ended up at the landfills. The extent of recycling and the waste handling and disposal of the waste were recorded. Non-compliance with the prescribed legislative guidelines were noted and aspects such as the state of the landfills, proper enclosure, burning of waste, recycling and products being recycled were identified and recorded. The waste disposal practices at most landfills were poor and very limited recycling was taking place. None of the landfills in the province complied with the minimum requirements for landfilling. Recommendations to improve waste disposal and identification of products with recycling potential were made. Alternative waste strategies which could be economically beneficial for the communities were recommended.
Author R.S. SlabbertSource: Interim : Interdisciplinary Journal 12, pp 42 –50 (2013)More Less
The development of tolerance to low pH levels and the existence of cross-resistance may promote survival of bacteria in acidic foodstuff and in acidic environments such as the human stomach, in so doing escalating the probability of food poisoning. Similar to antimicrobial resistance developing, there is growing concern that effectiveness of organic acids may decrease as a result of the emergence of acid-tolerant food-borne pathogens. The objectives of this study were to determine the development of acid tolerance in selected food-borne pathogenic bacteria and to explore the activity of organic acids against acid tolerant pathogens. Bacterial strains were screened for acid-tolerance and susceptible strains were induced through exposure to increasing concentrations of an inorganic acid, as well as acidic foodstuffs. Susceptibility to six organic acids at various pH levels was assessed in order to evaluate the possible relationship between altered antimicrobial activity and acid tolerance. Salmonella enterica sv. Enteritidis ATCC 13076 and Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 were found to rapidly develop acid tolerance, while intrinsic acid tolerance was noted in Salmonella enterica sv. Typhimurium ATCC 14028. Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 demonstrated intermediate intrinsic acid tolerance. As expected, pH played a significant role in inhibitory activity of the organic acids as these compounds exhibit optimum antimicrobial activity at a lower pH (pH ≤5). It is, however, necessary to further elucidate the two-way role of pH in foodstuff concomitant to the addition of an organic acid.
The influence of extrinsic stresses on the growth and endotoxin profiles of Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosaAuthor E.M. SmithSource: Interim : Interdisciplinary Journal 12, pp 51 –59 (2013)More Less
The LPS, endotoxin of Gram-negative organisms in communal growth as compared to pure culture was the focus of this research. The experiment aimed to show pure and communal samples grown in the presence of the extrinsic stresses. The change in toxicity was measured using the Limulus Amoebocyte Lysate (LAL) test. The overall sensitivity of organisms was similar for the same sanitiser and the same detergent. Growth in community was found not to be the arithmetic sum of the individual growth patterns. The detergents had a marked effect on the growth of all samples throughout the growth cycle. This finding reveals that the acceptable refrigeration temperatures still allows for pathogen growth and thus for biofilm formation. The quantification by LAL showed that the enumeration of the food-borne pathogens isolated from households might not be indicative of acclimatisation obtained over short periods of time and the causal stress could turn these organisms into more or less toxic pathogens.