Interim : Interdisciplinary Journal - Volume 14, Issue 1, 2015
Volume 14, Issue 1, 2015
Source: Interim : Interdisciplinary Journal 14, pp 1 –10 (2015)More Less
Structural design process (SDP) consists of three processes of inception; preliminary design and detail design. Each of these processes is laden with wastes that adversely affect project performance. Therefore, this study seeks to identify such wastes so as to develop a mechanism for its effective management. To achieve this, action research study will be conducted in some consulting engineering firms situated in Bloemfontein, South Africa. It is expected that the results will provide the platform for the development of a suitable mechanism for reduction / elimination of wastes in structural design process.
Source: Interim : Interdisciplinary Journal 14, pp 11 –23 (2015)More Less
Selective Laser Melting (SLM) is a powder bed fusion process which is an additive manufacturing (AM) process, whereby a laser beam selectively fuses regions of a powder bed to form complex objects. Growth in the SLM field has revealed the need for parts containing multiple materials for applications in the medical, tool making, aerospace and other hi-tech industries. By applying multiple materials, regions with different mechanical properties, thermal conductivity zones or corrosion-resistant coatings can be achieved in a single manufacturing cycle utilizing the SLM process. With the SLM process physical bonds can be formed between different materials by creating an interlocking interface due to the rapid solidification of the molten materials. With the current SLM equipment, multi material objects are possible but only with material differences between the layers. New approaches are needed to develop a method that allows multi material parts not only in the Z axis, but also allow material differences on a single layer (X-Y axis). Approaches such as powder feeding through a capillary tube, auger feed system, electrostatic charge or masks have all been proposed as solutions to multi material deposition. Multi material objects produced in a single cycle with complex geometry and prescribed properties has the opportunity of further growing the AM market.
Author A.J. SwartSource: Interim : Interdisciplinary Journal 14, pp 24 –37 (2015)More Less
Optimizing the output power of any PV module involves a number of factors, including the orientation angle. However, many PV modules are not installed at the suggested orientation angle of 0° N in South Africa, thereby indicating a nonalignment to the maximum solar radiation available for a given day. The purpose of this research is to highlight the importance of this installation by validating its acceptance zone using a simplified measuring approach. Results confirm that the incident angle on a specific PV installation varies around 44° for winter months. This indicates an acceptance zone of around 88°, which must be optimally aligned to the solar radiation curve, thereby yielding the optimum amount of output power.
Source: Interim : Interdisciplinary Journal 14, pp 38 –52 (2015)More Less
This paper contains research performed on the effectiveness of methods that aims to clear transient faults on MV networks without causing momentary supply loss to customers due to ARC operations, which is achieved by "instantaneous" interruption of fault currents. This is done by momentarily disconnecting the NECR's neutral earth connection. Currently the research also includes the implementation of single pole breakers which are able to trip independently from each other within 25ms. Implementing these methods of clearing transient faults will result in less stress being placed on breakers, joints, conductors and transformers within the MV network. It will also yield a better QoS performance with regards to dips and momentary interruptions. Lastly, the scheme will result in up to 50 times less burn wounds on people or animals in the unfortunate case of making contact with the MV network.
The amalgamation of mechanical, electrical and software technology to remove manual tasks performed in a vehicle rental businessSource: Interim : Interdisciplinary Journal 14, pp 53 –69 (2015)More Less
Most operational businesses today are restricted to normal business hours, as it is not cost effective for a business to operate on a 24-hour basis. Not only will operational costs increase substantially, in addition to these increases, the company will be faced with numerous challenges that range from security to staffing. Over the years, technology has proven to be an asset in which businesses could invest and enjoy the rewards of their investment in the form of an increase in employee efficiency, ease of new procedural implementations and the enforcement of governance. This process of continuous refinement has resulted in business systems developing to a point where the input required from an employee has been limited to the bare minimum. With the flexibility, dependability and affordability of technology today any operational business can reduce the need for human input into their systems. This article discusses the techniques employed by the researcher to stratify the hypothesis that the amalgamating of mechanical, electrical and software technologies will remove manual tasks performed by staff in a vehicle rental business.
Source: Interim : Interdisciplinary Journal 14, pp 70 –82 (2015)More Less
Traffic congestion is a challenge leading to undesirable consequences in most of the cities of the world. Many large and medium cities of South Africa, specifically the central business districts (CBD) are facing this challenge and are severely affected by this mobility problem. One such city, Kimberley, because of its unique physical, spatial, road network, economic characteristics and requirement of the mobility of heavy vehicles in addition to the normal city traffic faces typical traffic congestion challenges in its CBD area, particularly during the peak hours, which warranted this investigation. So, the objective of this paper is to assess the degree of traffic congestion (Level of Service (LOS)) in the roads of CBD area and explores a possible mechanism to ease the problem. A survey research methodology and application of relevant empirical models were employed to assess the level of traffic congestion and observe possible solutions to ease the traffic conduct this investigation. Findings revealed that there is appreciable level of traffic congestion in some of the roads of the CBD area of the Kimberley City, specifically during the peak hours, which needs strategic intervention. A reengineering solution, such as, traffic diversion from the congested roads to the underutilised or least congested roads could assist in easing the traffic congestion, increase in speed and reduction in travel time resulting into optimal utilisation of all the roads in the CBD area of the city.
Source: Interim : Interdisciplinary Journal 14, pp 83 –99 (2015)More Less
Research undertaken in Petrusville and Philipstown was to illustrate how nonconventional materials performed as a sub-base. Roads investigated in this research paper were classified as light or low volume roads where the daily traffic equalled to 100 vehicles per day. Main objectives was to achieve a reduction in the overall life cycle cost, vehicle operating cost and the depletion of nonrenewable resources for the roads. The outcome the road authorities and the different stakeholders wanted to achieve was that non-conventional materials can replace good quality road construction materials if the approach is cost effective and sustainable in the long term.
Source: Interim : Interdisciplinary Journal 14, pp 100 –109 (2015)More Less
South African manufacturing companies today need to be more sophisticated technologically to compete for global markets. The latest trend in automation and manufacturing emerges in the form of reconfigurable systems. The aim of this paper is to show the development of a reconfigurable assembly system and using virtual commissioning to plan, validate and optimize it. To achieve this "DELMIA" software was used to create a virtual simulation environment to verify an assembly cell from such a system as a case study. Simulations were conducted to verify software functions, device movements and operations, and the control software of the system. As a result, it was found that virtual commissioning is an excellent tool for predicting how the system will function, verifying system code early, and rectifying design flaws. This will enable manufacturing companies to be more competitive, ensure increased productivity, save time and ensure them an advantage over their competition.
Source: Interim : Interdisciplinary Journal 14, pp 110 –123 (2015)More Less
Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) fabricates parts using a track-by-track, layer-by-layer method in which powder is formed by melting and solidification of single tracks and thin layers. A laser beam scans over the powder layer thus creating a cross-sectional area of the 3D object. High-concentration of laser energy input leads to high thermal gradients which induce residual stress within the as-built parts. Methods for measurement residual stresses and stresses in DMLS parts were analysed.
Extending the technology acceptance model to evaluate discussion forum adoption in a learning management systemSource: Interim : Interdisciplinary Journal 14, pp 124 –138 (2015)More Less
The inclusion of ICT for educational purposes has burgeoned over the past decade. However, preliminary investigations indicate that e-learning systems remain underutilized, including systems such as discussion forums. The purpose of this study is to establish constructs that may promote adoption and use of discussion forums. The Technology Acceptance Model forms the theoretical framework for this study and is extended by including digital inclusion, perceived attention and perceived enjoyment. Thirty ICT students were purposively selected and interviewed. Findings suggest that perceived usefulness and ease along with digital inclusion may positively influence discussion forum adoption among undergraduate students.