Interim : Interdisciplinary Journal - Volume 7, Issue 2, 2008
Volume 7, Issue 2, 2008
Author G. CampbellSource: Interim : Interdisciplinary Journal 7, pp 1 –14 (2008)More Less
Magnesium is the second most abundant intracellular cation with many control and regulatory functions. It regulates energy production and utilization and modulates activity of membrane ionic channels. Magnesium has direct control effects on cardiac myocyte ion channels making it useful in certain arrhythmias. Calcium is responsible for pacemaker excitation and for excitation-contraction coupling in myocytes but increased intracellular calcium produces early and late afterdepolarisations initiating arrhythmias. Magnesium regulates calcium channel activity preventing raised intracellular levels. Potassium channel activity is enhanced by magnesium hyperpolarizing the cell reducing arrhythmia generation. Magnesium is effective against long QT Torsade de Pointes. In rapid atrial fibrillation magnesium produces rate control slowing AV nodal conduction. Magnesium prevents digitalis toxicity due to associated hypomagnesemia.
The social responsibility of SMMEs : the case for a framework and measurement instrument for the African contextAuthor Dennis Yao DzansiSource: Interim : Interdisciplinary Journal 7, pp 15 –26 (2008)More Less
To start with, ""Corporate Social Responsibility"" (CSR) appears a misnomer as it suggests a 'big business only' connotation. Rather, ""Business Social Responsibility"" (BSR) appears a better alternative because it accommodates all sizes of business. Despite progress in the business / society relationship, SMMEs on the African continent continue being neglected as far as BSR research is concerned. Unlike in the West, there are no frameworks, tools, and instruments to guide those interested in the SMME / BSR nexus in the African context. As it turns out, scholars, researchers, policy makers, and owner / managers interested in the SMME / BSR nexus in Africa have no choice but to rely on frameworks, tools, and metrics designed for European and American contexts. This is in spite of Visser's (2007) caution that the Euro-American frameworks are inappropriate for the African situation. This paper makes a case for the development of an African context specific SMME / BSR framework(s) and measurement instrument(s).
The development of supplemental instruction at the Central University of Technology, Free State (CUT)Author N. BairdSource: Interim : Interdisciplinary Journal 7, pp 27 –43 (2008)More Less
The former Technikon Free State, now the CUT, was concerned about the academic achievements of students and decided to introduce a programme to enhance the outcomes of student learning. The then Technikon initially identified weak performers and advised / compelled them to attend special classes. This programme proved to be unsuccessful due to the potential stigma associated with attending special classes. The Technikon commenced with its first research initiatives to implement supplemental instruction (SI) in 1993. The founders of SI, Profs Diana Martin and Robert Blanc of the University of Kansas City in Missouri, USA, presented demonstrations at joint workshops and also invited attendees to attend SI workshops in the USA. Soon permission was granted to implement SI at this institution in 1993. A new dimension to the concept of SI, namely to record SI lectures for discussion afterwards was added.
Author L. De JagerSource: Interim : Interdisciplinary Journal 7, pp 44 –60 (2008)More Less
The implementation of the outcomes-based education and training (OBET) and learner-centred approaches specifically in the health technology programmes at the Central University of Technology, Free State (CUT) exposed facilitators to new challenges in teaching and assessment. The current assessment environment in these programmes was established, using two questionnaires aimed at facilitators and students. The results of the study showed a trend towards innovation in assessment and the establishment of an assessment culture when compared with specific characteristics in literature on meaningful and scholarly assessment practices.
A conceptual analysis of a university of technology and its contribution to research and developmentSource: Interim : Interdisciplinary Journal 7, pp 61 –78 (2008)More Less
This paper provides a conceptual overview of one of the three types of university in the South African higher education band, namely the university of technology. The contention of the paper is that universities of technology should have the same core activities as the general or classical university, that is teaching, research and service. The differences between the types of university exist on a conceptual level and therefore also in their approach to science in general. The conceptual analysis illustrates how the university of technology contributes towards research and development. It is for this reason that this university type should be welcomed by the university sector. Its overall contribution to what a university is should be acknowledged.
The truth stumbles on campus : a contribution from theological ethics to the search for a professional ethic in researchSource: Interim : Interdisciplinary Journal 7, pp 79 –114 (2008)More Less
This paper argues for a professional ethic in research and the contribution of theological ethics thereto. The author points out that although theological ethics is poor at dealing with issues related to professional ethics and its application to research, theological ethics can nevertheless make a fundamental contribution towards a professional ethic for research. It is also emphasised that although there is very limited (South African) literature on this topic, some theological ethics studies can contribute towards the understanding of such ethics. The author works with a triple helix approach to (theological) ethics. This approach to ethics is built upon the concept of responsible acts (Douma), making decisions (Fisher) and a growth ethic (Burggraeve). The article concludes with pointers for a professional ethic in research from a theological ethics perspective.
Author Johnson KinyuaSource: Interim : Interdisciplinary Journal 7, pp 115 –125 (2008)More Less
Radio-frequency Identification (RFID) technology promises to revolutionize business processes. While RFID technology is improving rapidly, a reliable deployment of this technology is still a significant challenge impeding its widespread adoption. In this paper we provide a brief overview of some common fundamental characteristics of RFID data and devices, which pose significant challenges in the design of RFID middleware systems. In addition, the development of a multi-agent RFID middleware solution to address the RFID data and device management challenges is discussed.
Problems first-year university students bring to science classes and implications for teaching and learningAuthor M.A. LekhuSource: Interim : Interdisciplinary Journal 7, pp 126 –142 (2008)More Less
An exploratory study was conducted to investigate firstly, the contextual problems first-year university students experienced at their respective schools and secondly, the subject related-problems that they could be bringing to science classes and which could later affect their understanding of science concepts. The study is grounded in constructivism. A questionnaire was administered to all the 2007 First-year B.Ed (FET) Natural Science students at the Central University of Technology, Free State. The contextual problems identified by respondents included school, educator, examiner and student-related problems. Subject specific problem areas were identified in biology, chemistry and physics. The paper also reports on the preliminary results of some teaching interventions implemented in the three subjects. A Force Concept Inventory (FCI) test was administered to the physics students, and a concept test for chemistry group. Concept mapping as a teaching and learning strategy has been introduced in biology classes. Further research continues on the effectiveness of these interventions.
The impact of leadership and management of host schools on the construction of professional identity of teacher traineesAuthor S.N. MatotiSource: Interim : Interdisciplinary Journal 7, pp 143 –163 (2008)More Less
The paper reports on the findings of a study that investigated the impact of leadership and management on the construction of professional identity of teacher trainees. The writer argues that the overall leadership and management of the host schools, where student teachers do experiential training (teaching practice), has an impact on the construction of their professional identity. The host schools provide different learning experiences (environment) which may either enhance or hinder the development of a positive professional identity. A questionnaire comprising of open-ended questions was administered to 40 teacher trainees at the School of Teacher Education, Central University of Technology, Free State. The students had just return from a six-month period of experiential training. The aim of the questionnaire was to examine their views on their experiences and expectations of the teaching practice, and whether or not the leadership and management of the school has had an impact on the construction of their professional identity. The findings revealed that a supportive and enabling environment within the host school provided a good learning experience and consequently enhanced the development of a positive professional identity whereas a non-welcoming and threatening environment had the opposite effect. Suggestions and recommendations for providing a supportive and enabling environment for all students are made.
Author M.N. NaongSource: Interim : Interdisciplinary Journal 7, pp 164 –176 (2008)More Less
With the dawn of the new curriculum in this country, namely, Curriculum 2005 (C2005) in 1997, and the Revised National Curriculum Statement (RNCS) in 2002, which are the two major curriculum policy developments in South Africa (Ramsuran & Malcolm, 2006:515), it invited an assortment of reactions from the entire education fraternity. The most obvious and extensive critique of the curriculum was that of the Report of the Ministerial Review Committee, which was established to review it in 2000. The approach adopted in this study is to encompass both processes of initial introduction and the revision stages in its reference to the curriculum. This article however, reveals that despite these implementation challenges, the overwhelming majority (88%) of the teachers have not only begun to embrace it, but are also applying the OBE principles in their lessons.
Factors contributing to lack of discipline in selected secondary schools in the Mangaung Area of Bloemfontein and possible solutionsAuthor P.L. NdamaniSource: Interim : Interdisciplinary Journal 7, pp 177 –197 (2008)More Less
The paper is part of a bigger study carried out to investigate the factors which contribute to a lack of discipline in selected secondary schools in the Mangaung Area of Bloemfontein. The argument in this study is two fold. Firstly, it looks at the parents as one of the factors which contribute to lack of discipline in schools. Secondly, it concentrates on parental involvement as one of the possible solutions in disciplining the children. The findings of the study reveal that the parents themselves may foster a lack of discipline in their children. The parents have a tendency of shifting their role of disciplining their children to the educators hence they perceive their role as external to the school environment with respect to discipline. This then causes problems to the educators as they need parent support in dealing with disciplinary problems. The involvement of parents in education was, on the other hand, identified as one of the possible solutions to lack of discipline in secondary schools, because parental involvement was identified as connected to positive discipline in schools. It is important to emphasise the fact that parent-school partnerships are crucial to the success of any school disciplinary approach. Many disciplinary approaches can be successful with the involvement of the parents.
Acute coronary syndromes : pathophysiology and management. Implications for the South African populationAuthor W.M.L. NeethlingSource: Interim : Interdisciplinary Journal 7, pp 198 –219 (2008)More Less
Acute coronary syndromes (ACS) are the consequence of the development of coronary artery disease, which is the leading cause of death worldwide. ACS manifests as unstable angina or myocardial infarction and treatment strategies (which had been developed largely in Europe and North America) include medical or interventional therapy (percutaneous coronary intervention or coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG). CABG surgery is one of the most expensive elective procedures in a hospital. Several risk factors are known to be associated with morbidity and mortality after CABG intervention. Appropriate, cost-effective intervention requires detailed knowledge of the preoperative risk factors, validated for the varied ethnic composition of South Africa. 
Author J.M. SeleshoSource: Interim : Interdisciplinary Journal 7, pp 220 –230 (2008)More Less
Higher education institutions (HEIs) in many countries have taken up the challenges of assuring accountability and improving performance. The quality of higher education (HE) is of increasing importance to nations across the world, seeing that these institutions represent valuable resources for their countries. An internal self-evaluation is the starting point in any quality assurance process. An effective system of internal self-evaluation will brand the institution internationally and improve academic mobility. As such, HEIs, individually strive to meet, if not exceed, the international standard. On the strength of the scenario set out above, the problem statement can be formulated as follows: Universities have incorporated and applied in their evaluation practices the notion of internal self-evaluation. Since the inception of this approach at universities there has not been any in-depth analysis of this notion, therefore its validity, effectiveness, and efficiency may not be asssured with a great degree of certainty. The intention of this paper is to ascertain whether the application of self-evaluation mechanisms achieves its objective.