Interim : Interdisciplinary Journal - Volume 9, Issue 1, 2010
Volume 9, Issue 1, 2010
Source: Interim : Interdisciplinary Journal 9 (2010)More Less
The Faculty of Health and Environmental Sciences takes pride in publishing this special edition of the Interim journal comprising presentations of staff and post graduate students at the Annual Prestige Research Day of the Faculty, October 2008 in collaboration with the Office of Research and Development. The Prestige Research Day represents a unique opportunity to showcase, share research results and discuss new areas of interest on the research that is being conducted in the faculty. The faculty focuses on applicable and appropriate research that with national and international standing, much of which aims to address community and industry needs.
A survey of the generic graduate skills that the Central University of Technology Radiography graduates need for the world of workSource: Interim : Interdisciplinary Journal 9, pp 1 –14 (2010)More Less
The issue of Generic Skills has received considerable attention over the past few years as universities, in their response to calls for accountability, need to articulate and demonstrate the achievement of these (Barrie, 2005: 1). In recent years, employers and their representatives consistently demand that their employees must possess a range of personal and intellectual attributes. These include attributes beyond those traditionally made explicit in programmes of study in higher education institutions (Harvey, 2000:7). Universities describe these graduate qualities differently, resulting in a variety of terms used to target the same attribute (Barrie, 2006:218). This diversity of descriptions prompts questions as to the extent to what stakeholders in the Radiography programme understand by the term generic graduate skills. One of the major goals was to explore what the stakeholders involved in academic and work-based learning as well as radiography students identified as generic graduate skills radiography students must obtain during their studies to prepare them adequately for the world of work. Findings from this study agreed on the importance of higher education to be informed of expectations from employees in order to respond to the need of preparing students adequately for future job tasks and contributions to society. In addition to this. the study also identified the particular generic skills stakeholders regard essential for students entering the profession.
An investigation towards the need for a postgraduate qualification in the specialisation fields of Diagnostic Radiography at the CUTSource: Interim : Interdisciplinary Journal 9, pp 15 –23 (2010)More Less
The current master's degree qualification in Diagnostic Radiography at the Central University of Technology, Free State (CUT) is research based and does seemingly not address the need for training in the specialisation fields of Diagnostic Radiography sufficiently. To address this problem, a needs assessment was conducted amongst qualified diagnostic radiographers in Bloemfontein and Kimberley by means of quantitative questionnaires, qualitative interviews and a focus group discussion. The main aim of the needs assessment was to determine the need for a postgraduate qualification for radiographers in the specialised fields. The possible structure of such a program and the preferred mode of delivery were also investigated. The results of the study emphasised the need for a structured postgraduate learning programme in the specialisation fields in Diagnostic Radiography in the region. Responding to this validated need for a structured postgraduate qualification at the CUT, the current master's degree was revised to accommodate the results of the study and it was proposed to the Professional Board for Radiography and Clinical Technology for approval.
Author H.S. Friedrich-NelSource: Interim : Interdisciplinary Journal 9, pp 24 –32 (2010)More Less
Reflection and reflective practice as a method to inform facilitators' teaching and learning practices has been in use for a long time. It was first introduced by Dewy in 1933. The methodology consisted of a qualitative approach supported by a quantitative analysis and was prompted by a number of questions pertaining to reflective teaching. This article communicates how reflective teaching was embedded in the Radiographic Pathology module for undergraduates in 2007 as well as the outcomes of the process.
Author N.J. LuwesSource: Interim : Interdisciplinary Journal 9, pp 33 –43 (2010)More Less
In the 13th century an Italian mathematician Fibonacci, also known as Leonardo da Pisa, identified a sequence of numbers that seemed to be repeating and be residing in nature (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fibonacci) (Kalman, D. et al. 2003: 167). Later a golden ratio was encountered in nature, art and music. This ratio can be seen in the distances in simple geometric figures. It is linked to the Fibonacci numbers by dividing a bigger Fibonacci value by the one just smaller of it. This ratio seems to be settling down to a particular value of 1.618 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fibonacci) (He, C. et al. 2002:533) (Cooper, C et al 2002:115) (Kalman, D. et al. 2003: 167) (Sendegeya, A. et al. 2007). Artificial Intelligence or neural networks is the science and engineering of using computers to understand human intelligence (Callan R. 2003:2) but humans and most things in nature abide to Fibonacci numbers and the golden ratio. Since Neural Networks uses the same algorithms as the human brain does, the aim is to experimentally proof that using Fibonacci numbers as weights, and the golden rule as a learning rate, that this might improve learning curve performance. If the performance is improved it should prove that the algorithm for neural network's do represent its nature counterpart. Two identical Neural Networks was coded in LabVIEW with the only difference being that one had random weights and the other (the adapted one) Fibonacci weights. The results were that the Fibonacci neural network had a steeper learning curve. This improved performance with the neural algorithm, under these conditions, suggests that this formula is a true representation of its natural counterpart or visa versa that if the formula is the simulation of its natural counterpart, then the weights in nature is Fibonacci values.
Source: Interim : Interdisciplinary Journal 9, pp 44 –54 (2010)More Less
Cancer patients have varying perceptions about their treatment. The aim of the study was to investigate the different perceptions that patients have about their treatment, and how these perceptions are influenced by their social and cultural backgrounds. The impact of these perceptions on patient responses was also investigated. Eighty-five patients were selected for the study and interviewed using a questionnaire to explore their perceptions and the possible impact of these perceptions on their responses to treatment. An analysis of the perceptions is provided.
Problems and solutions of waste handling practices at red meat abattoirs in the Free State province, South AfricaSource: Interim : Interdisciplinary Journal 9, pp 55 –63 (2010)More Less
The waste management practices used at red-meat abattoirs in the Free State province for disposal of condemned products generated in abattoirs and the problems associated with the different waste disposal methods were investigated. Problems caused by various products generated at abattoirs. such as abattoir waste water, blood, stomach contents, manure, whole carcasses, fetuses and all products unsuitable for human consumption requiring disposal were identified. Recommended solutions took into account the most effective handling manner, causing minimum environmental pollution, reducing any health risks to communities, and converting condemned products into value-added by-products by changing certain waste management processes / strategies. The handling of waste, specifically of condemned products, at 78 red meat abattoirs was analysed.
Investigating the development of acid tolerance in food-borne pathogens Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the implication on the susceptibility to organic acidsSource: Interim : Interdisciplinary Journal 9, pp 64 –73 (2010)More Less
Various foodstuffs have a very low pH and bacteria have been reported to survive such products. Acid substances, such as organic acids are common food preservatives. These substances also lower the pH of processed foods. Decontamination with organic acids which could result in the emergence of acid tolerant food-borne pathogens is causing concern. The objectives of the study were to determine the development of acid tolerance in important food-borne pathogenic bacteria, to investigate evolving changes in the phenotypic characteristics as a result this acid tolerance, and to explore the possibility of repercussions in successful food preservation with organic acids. Bacterial strains were screened for acid-tolerance, by determining viable counts immediately before acid challenge and at various times after challenge. Strains were exposed to increasing concentrations of hydrochloric acid, acidic foodstuff and two organic acids (acetic and citric acid). Protein profiles were generated by SDS-PAGE examined for possible modification(s) as a result of acid tolerance development. Susceptibility to seven organic acids levels were scrutinised to evaluate the probability of a correlation between altered antimicrobial activity and acid tolerance. Salmonella enterica sv. Enteritidis ATCC 13076 and Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 indicated rapid development of acid tolerance, after 36h of acid exposure. In Salmonella enterica sv. Typhimurium ATCC 14028, E. coli 0111 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 intermediate intrinsic acid tolerance was obvious. On comparing susceptibility of these pathogens to the organic acids, it was demonstrated that pH played a significant role in inhibitory activity, as it is known that these compounds exhibit optimum antimicrobial activity at a lower pH (pH ≤ 5). Further investigations will be conducted to elucidate the two-way role of pH in foodstuff and the addition of an organic acid, in determining if microorganisms are losing their susceptibility for the preservative as a result of sub-optimal pH levels, or if they become acid-tolerant after surviving exposure to organic acids.
Source: Interim : Interdisciplinary Journal 9, pp 74 –105 (2010)More Less
In South Africa (SA) fire service employees train at accredited training centres to become qualified firefighters, but to progress to higher leadership positions, there is a perceived need to acquire advanced expertise in areas that could be addressed by Higher Education (HE). A study employing a survey and focus group discussion was conducted, in collaboration with the professional body for emergency services in SA, to ascertain this perceived need. It was found that a high percentage of qualified firefighters were interested in further academic offerings by HE institutions and that their aspirations are toward a structured Master's degree. This type of Higher Education offering would furthermore, have to be presented through a blended learning method.
Author P. VenterSource: Interim : Interdisciplinary Journal 9, pp 106 –126 (2010)More Less
The initial section of this manuscript focus on the ultra-structure of a unique class of heat stable cell-bound lipopolysaccharides (endotoxin) produced by Gram-negative bacteria. Subsequently, this paper summarises literature on the human body's response when challenged with endotoxins present in food and further explores the influence of food manufacturing and storage practices on endotoxin production and release by bacteria commonly isolated from food. Finally, this paper presents a brief description on the methods applied by the food industry to quantify endotoxins.
Towards value addition in school feeding programs : the influence of seasonal factors, geographical localization and facility design on airborne microbial contaminantsSource: Interim : Interdisciplinary Journal 9, pp 127 –137 (2010)More Less
The influence of season associated extrinsic factors, facility design and the geographical localization of schools participating in feeding programmes on the control and distribution of airborne organisms is not clear. Likewise, the impact of the resident bioaerosols on school occupants and the food stored in these facilities remains to be elucidated. Therefore this paper gives particular attention to the presence and distribution of indicator organisms in the food storage and classroom environment of schools (rural / urban) participating in a feeding programme in South Africa. From the results it emanated that though the storage facilities at the schools in question are, according to all technical data, not suitable for food storage; they did seem to govern some of the extrinsic factors that could influence bioaerosol viability. No control of these storerooms over the resident airborne bacteria was however noted. The results further identified the occupants of the schools as the possible source of the organisms present in the store rooms and not the building or the surrounding environment.
Occupational health and safety programmes for crop farm workers in the Mangaung municipal district, Free StateSource: Interim : Interdisciplinary Journal 9, pp 138 –146 (2010)More Less
The occupational hygiene of South African farm workers have been largely neglected because of the emphasis specifically put on the industrial environment. The aim of the study was to compile an applicable occupational hygiene programme for Mangaung crop farm workers. Twenty-five farms were selected and a list that included the farm activities, number of workers and work hours was completed. A hazard identification risk assessment (HIRA) was compiled and completed to rate the identified health and safety risks. Eleven "high" risks, seven "moderate" risks and only one "low" risk were identified with the HIRA. An applicable overall occupational hygiene programme was compiled and may thus now be implemented with applicable education and training.