Interim : Interdisciplinary Journal - Volume 9, Issue 2, 2010
Volume 9, Issue 2, 2010
The development and implementation of a qualitative tool into a sensory product which can be used in a class situation for children with learning problemsSource: Interim : Interdisciplinary Journal 9, pp 1 –25 (2010)More Less
Children with Learning Problems (LP) differ from other children and are mostly identified in the primary grades. Factors which may influence the development of sensory products to stimulate children with LP are design factors such as illustrations, colour, themes and supporting factors which include therapeutic practices and cultural sensitivity. The previous mentioned factors may be beneficial for text enhancement and reading comprehension within books for children with Learning Disabilities (LD). It is envisaged that if design factors as well as sensory stimulants are integrated into play therapy mediums such as the Sensory Product (SP), it will be able to stimulate a child with LP through different therapeutic practices. Special needs teachers aid children with LP through intervention strategies once they are identified. Intervention strategies involve the use of instruments such as scripted and prescribed programmes (Fuchs & Fuchs, 2006), reading aloud by teachers to children (Fisher, Flood, Lapp & Frey, 2004) and one-on-one instruction as part of the three-tiered Reading to Intervention Model (RIM) (Scanlon & Sweeney, 2008). SP have the potential to assist teachers and children with LP but only if those products are appropriate for the children's developmental level (Oravec, 2000).
Evaluation of the quality of summative assessments in selected hospitality management modules at a university of technologySource: Interim : Interdisciplinary Journal 9, pp 26 –40 (2010)More Less
Higher education institutions have a responsibility to produce successful graduates; therefore, teaching, of which assessment is an integral part, must promote quality learning. This paper reports on an evaluation of the quality of summative assessments. A qualitative research design was used and a document analysis strategy was followed. Examination papers, memoranda and applicable learner guides were the primary data sources. Results showed that the assessment instruments studied mostly complied with the principles for assessment and the NQF level descriptors. However, it was found that only 10% of the marks allocated in the papers were allotted for items requiring higher order cognitive activity, and only 50% were aligned with outcomes and criteria found in the learner guides. It is therefore concluded that an improvement in the quality of summative assessment instruments is required.
Enhancing the contribution of open and distance e-learning in higher education : implications for the central university of technology, Free StateAuthor K.J. De BeerSource: Interim : Interdisciplinary Journal 9, pp 41 –58 (2010)More Less
The aims of this article are to describe the findings of the author over the last decade regarding traditional distance education which eventually became Open and Distance E-Learning (ODEL) at the Central University of Technology, Free State (CUT) and secondly, the integration of Open Education Resources (OER) within ODEL. Up for debate in Perspectives in Education is the question whether ODEL and OER have not already stimulated a new constellation for higher education? After attending several international conferences of the International Organization for Open and Distance Education (lODE), the National Association for Open Distance Education of South Africa (NADEOSA), Higher Education Learning and Teaching Association of Southern Africa (HELTASA) as well as the South African Association for Research Development in Higher Education (SMRDHE), it became evident to the author that global trends forced a number of changes onto the South African higher education system.
Subsequently, the CUT also had to reconsider the role of distance education within the Free State and Northern Cape provinces where it operates. In 2004 for example, students enrolled for distance education countrywide already constituted between 4% and 32% at traditional face-to-face universities while for universities of technology the figure was only 4,74% (CHE, 2004:185-186). However, universities of technology since expanded tremendously in using ODEL.
The effect of medium composition and ethanol toxicity on the growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain W303-1A(a).Source: Interim : Interdisciplinary Journal 9, pp 59 –68 (2010)More Less
The growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain W303-1A(a) was evaluated in complex and chemically defined media. The use of chemically defined medium allowed the complete utilisation of glucose within 20 h. as well as all of the produced ethanol within 45 h. Maximum specific growth rates (µmax) were increased from 0.28 h-1 to 0.42 h-1 and the volumetric rate of ethanol production increased from 0.204 g l-1 h-1 to 0.597 g l-1 h-1. However, when the ethanol concentration exceeded a threshold value of 10 g l-1, the µmax value was significantly decreased. These observations suggest that ethanol metabolism related growth experiments for the relevant strain should be carried out in chemically defined medium with ethanol concentrations below 10 g l-1.
Market response time as a new approach for more effective marketing planning in business-to-business salesSource: Interim : Interdisciplinary Journal 9, pp 69 –79 (2010)More Less
The ability to increase turnover in a short time is determined by industry characteristics. These characteristics need to be taken into account during forecasting and planning. The correlation. which can be described among others by the Market Response Time (MRT) has an impact upon the whole marketing planning. MRT is defined as the time between increased marketing efforts (stimuli) and the time when the market starts to react in terms of increased purchasing (response). It is expected that different industries have different MRTs which influence the analyzed planning in different ways. Thus sales planning must be adapted to MRT, which will most probably increase planning efficiency.
A technique for tracking an indoor unmanned aerial or automated guided vehicle using a stationary camera and hue colour characteristicsSource: Interim : Interdisciplinary Journal 9, pp 80 –95 (2010)More Less
Today's industries are based on an automated workplace. These automated workplaces are efficient, reconfigurable and intelligent automated environments. They are filled with technology, robotics, Automated Guided Vehicle (AGV) and, or Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) etc. For full automation will one need to effectively track an object, unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) or automated guided vehicle (AGV). Effective tracking of vehicles can be used for control. This could result in less hardware on the craft that leads to a longer battery life, a bigger pay load or more processing power.
This system track by using a stationary colour camera placed at an optimal placing in the automated workplace. The vehicle or objects are painted in two colours (colour A and colour B) that are not present in the automated workplace. The images from the camera are hue colour filtered to extract only the object or vehicle. The area, placement in frame and relationship between colour A and B are used for position and determine the orientation of AGV, UAV or object.
Facilitation of a diverse higher education student community from conventional to alternative assessment practicesSource: Interim : Interdisciplinary Journal 9, pp 96 –106 (2010)More Less
The higher education classroom of today is filled with students of vast diversity which applies to culture, sex and nationality. This can be seen in the fact that some students only study for the sake of a higher education or the availability of a bursary. These factors influence the persuasion and commitment towards more surface learning. It is stated that the principle of assessment is not only a tool to indicate achievement or outcomes met, but a good assessment method can also shape learning. By shifting to an alternative assessment method one can shift a learner's persuasion and commitment from surface learning to deep, constructive learning.
Using neural networks modelling as motivation for alternative assessment practices in higher engineering educationSource: Interim : Interdisciplinary Journal 9, pp 107 –116 (2010)More Less
The human brain has about 100 billion neurons. These neural networks can be simulated in the science of artificial intelligence. Thus are these mathematical models in artificial intelligence based on their biological neural network counterpart. One can use these mathematical models to model learning. Neural networks are based on collections of nodes or neurons that are connected in a tree pattern to allow communication between them. A single node is a simple processor but a multilayered network with supervised training is capable of complex tasks. Learning can be divided into surface or deep learning. Surface learning is a low energy, low cognitive approach. Deep learning are recognized by, leaner's accepting personal responsibility, enjoying the experience of learning and the ability to identify where to apply learning in industry or future work. It is thus beneficial if the neural networks are stimulated to a deep, constructive learning approach. Assessment can be a good method to shape learning. This article argues that by shifting to an alternative assessment approach one can shift a learner's neural networks from surface learning to deep constructive learning.
Author M. MotsekeSource: Interim : Interdisciplinary Journal 9, pp 117 –133 (2010)More Less
Learner discipline is an important aspect of schooling. Historically, teachers applied a number of measures to maintain discipline, including corporal punishment. In 1996 the use of corporal punishment in South African schools was banned. However, some parents and teachers believed that the banning of corporal punishment was directly responsible for poor discipline among learners in the township schools. The purpose of this article was to investigate this perception, as well as to investigate what teachers were doing to address disciplinary problems among learners. A questionnaire was developed, and distributed among 20 teachers from primary schools in the Matjhabeng Municipality (16 teachers responded). The data collected was quantitatively analysed. It was found that although cases of learner mischief were still experienced in the primary schools, the level of discipline has not increased disproportionately after the banning of corporal punishment; the majority of learners behaved fairly well. However, some teachers were found to use harsh measures of disciplining learners, including corporal punishment. The involvement of parents in learner discipline was not preferred by many teachers. To help teachers to effectively handle discipline, the Ministry of Education has to find ways of training teachers in democracy, stress management and conflict management.
Source: Interim : Interdisciplinary Journal 9, pp 134 –144 (2010)More Less
Along the path of water flowing in a river basin are many water-related human interventions that modify the natural systems. Rainwater harvesting is one such intervention that involves abstraction of water in the upstream catchment. Increased water withdrawal at upstream level is an issue of concern for downstream water availability to sustain ecosystem services. The Modder River basin, located in the central South Africa, is experiencing intermittent meteorological droughts causing water shortages for agriculture, livestock and domestic purpose. To address this problem a technique was developed for small scale farmers with objective of harnessing rainwater for crop production. However, the impact of a wider adoption of this technique by farmers on the water resources has not been quantified. In this regard, the SWAT hydrological model was used to simulate the impact of such practice on the water resources of the river basin. The scenarios studied were: pasture (PAST), conventional agriculture (Agri-CON) and agriculture using rainwater harvesting (Agri-IRWH). The result showed that the highest mean monthly direct flow was obtained on Agri-CON land use (18 mm), followed by PAST (12 mm) and Agri-IRWH land use (10 mm). The Agri-IRWH scenario reduced runoff by 38% compared to Agri-CON, which justifies its intended purpose. On the other hand, it was found that the Agri-IRWH contributed to more groundwater recharge (40 mm) compared to PAST (32 mm) and Agri-CON (19 mm) scenarios. Although, there was a visible impact of the rainwater harvesting technique on the water yield when considered on a monthly time frame, the overall result showed that there was a substantial benefit of using the rainwater harvesting technique for agricultural production (Agr-IRWH) without impacting significantly on the mean annual water yield.