African Security Review - Volume 15, Issue 2, 2006
Volume 15, Issue 2, 2006
Source: African Security Review 15, pp IV –VI (2006)More Less
Extracted from text ... African Security Review 15.2 Institute for Security Studies Editorial v EDITORIAL Reducing fi rearm deaths and injuries Guy Lamb and Douglas Tuttle* Firearms result in hundreds of thousands of deaths and millions of injuries worldwide each year, with guns being responsible for between 60 and 90 per cent of all deaths during armed confl icts. In late March 2006 the Institute for Security Studies (ISS), in collaboration with the International Physicians Against Nuclear War (IPPNW) and the International Action Network on Small Arms (IANSA), hosted a conference titled: Driving Change: Firearms Policy for Safer Societies in Durban, South Africa. This ..
From fieldwork to facts to firearms control : research and advocacy towards stricter firearm control legislation in South Africa : featureSource: African Security Review 15, pp 2 –15 (2006)More Less
Children have special protection under the South African constitution, including the right to safety, health and an environment conducive to their wellbeing and optimal development. Yet, firearms contribute significantly to the high incidence of deaths and injuries among South African children and in young males in their late teens. This case study is about the participation of the Child Health Policy Institute (CHPI) in a law reform process ultimately aimed at reducing firearm injuries and deaths in the country by exercising stricter gun control through legislation and other reforms. This feature briefly describes the political context in which the project was initiated, the research on firearm injuries and deaths in children conducted by the CHPI, and the dissemination of the research findings. The role of the CHPI as an academic institution within the Gun Control Alliance is also examined as are the lessons learnt in trying the bridge the gap between research and law reform.
Using public health information to inform, build support and implement policies for gun violence prevention : a case study from the gun ban referendum : featureSource: African Security Review 15, pp 16 –37 (2006)More Less
Gun violence is one of the most serious health problems in Brazil. Information on gun deaths and injuries is collected by the Ministry of Health. This data has been used very successfully to inform and design public policies for preventing gun violence. This article analyses the use of public health information by researchers and activists, as well as government officials and the media, to reveal the severity of firearm injuries and deaths and to gain consensus on the need for reforms to national gun laws. It also assesses the resounding 'no' vote in a recent disarmament referendum to decide whether to prohibit the sale of guns and ammunition. The results of the Brazilian referendum are a lesson to other countries struggling to deal with high levels of gun violence, showing that it may not always be enough to have data to back up efforts to change policies - as people's decisions around gun ownership and use, as well as their choices regarding security policies, are motivated by a complex interaction of factors.
Source: African Security Review 15, pp 38 –56 (2006)More Less
Firearms have played a significant role in exacerbating invidious forms of violence in Papua New Guinea. Victimisation rates in the National Capital District (NCD) are amongst the highest in the world. Port Moresby, the country's largest and fastest growing urban centre, accounts for some 34 per cent of all nationally reported crimes, despite accounting for only 5 per cent of the country's population. The Southern Highlands Province (SHP) is also rife with violent armed conflict. This feature reports on the findings from an armed violence assessment administered in NCD and SHP by the Small Arms Survey with support from the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). This assessment yields a number of critical and counter-intuitive findings that take issue with the conventional wisdom concerning armed violence in Papua New Guinea and should influence prospective interventions to mitigate insecurity and reduce arms availability and demand.
Finding the evidence : the links between weapon collection programmes, gun use and homicide rates in Cambodia : featureAuthor Christina WilleSource: African Security Review 15, pp 57 –73 (2006)More Less
Cambodia is a typical example of a post-conflict country where the lack of easily available data to guide policy design is one of the fundamental challenges to be addressed. While Cambodia has benefited from sustained Small Arms and Light Weapons (SALW) collection and destruction programmes since 1998, these have not been accompanied by any data analysis on the impact of gun proliferation and use or on these destruction programmes. In 2005, the Small Arms Survey (SAS) collected data on firearm morbidity and mortality spanning the last ten years. The objective was to develop methods that can be used for data generation in countries without systematic data collection. Using hospital admissions records and a review of the main English newspaper, the data shows that collection and destruction programmes have made a significant difference to human security in Cambodia. The study also reveals that even where no official data is available in a country, researchers can often derive useful indicators.
Author Richard CornwellSource: African Security Review 15, pp 76 –78 (2006)More Less
Extracted from text ... African Security Review 15.2 Institute for Security Studies Somalia: Distorting reality? Richard Cornwell* The Transitional Federal Government of Somalia (TFG) came into being in 2004 as the result of protracted negotiations conducted under the auspices of the Inter-governmental Authority for Development (IGAD). In many respects the TFG was the brainchild of Ethiopia, whose government had long decided that a resuscitated state in Somalia, which had been without an effective government since the fall of Siad Barre in 1991, would have to be kept weak or dependent in order to prevent it renewing its irredentist claims to the Ogaden regions of ..
Slow military reform and the transition process in the Democratic Republic of the Congo : Africa watchSource: African Security Review 15, pp 79 –83 (2006)More Less
Extracted from text ... Slow military reform and the transition process in the Democratic Republic of the Congo Stephanie Wolters and Henri Boshoff* Introduction After nearly three years and a number of delays, the transition period in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) is now set to come to an end by 31 July 2006. A new constitution was adopted by a referendum held in late 2005, paving the way for presidential and legislative elections which are now set to take place on 30 July. This will be the first Congolese government to have been elected in free and fair elections since the ..
Author Lisa VettenSource: African Security Review 15, pp 86 –92 (2006)More Less
This article explores the role of f rearms in acts of violence against women in South Africa, drawing on three datasets: one investigating the implementation of the Domestic Violence Act (DVA), the second exploring gang rapes, and the third documenting intimate femicide. In relation to domestic violence, it was found that while guns were referred to in one in four applications for protection, their removal was ordered in only two per cent of applications. Both a provincial femicide study and a national female homicide study found guns to be the leading cause of death for women killed by their intimate male partners and found that in the majority of cases, the gun was legally owned. In contrast, in the gang rape study it is more likely that the guns were illegally owned. The involvement of a fi rearm in gang rapes highlights the fact that guns not only fulfil the functional purpose of intimidation and injury, but also communicates power and masculine display. The three studies point to the need to train magistrates around the necessity to remove firearms in cases of domestic violence and that it is essential to challenge the symbolic associations between masculinity and power.
Achieving positive reform of firearm control laws through information use : the Tasmanian case study : essayAuthor Roland BrowneSource: African Security Review 15, pp 93 –107 (2006)More Less
The defining moment for gun control in Australia and in its smallest state, Tasmania, was the April 1996 massacre at Port Arthur when 35 people were shot dead and 18 injured. By 1998 each state had enacted tighter laws with respect to licensing, compulsory registration and storage requirements, together with bans on military and military style rifles and shotguns. Surprisingly there was little data or published studies available justifying the introduction of these new laws. Australia is thus in the curious position where policy change and law reform occurred before data collection and analysis. Subsequently, there have been two major studies: The first, released in 2004, concluded that dramatic reductions in firearm-related deaths had been achieved as a result of the legislative reforms. In 2005, the Tasmanian Auditor-General produced a Special Report which examined hospital admissions for gun trauma, thefts of firearms, and statistics regarding the use of firearms to commit violent crime and suicide. While these studies have been used to ensure that the laws are not watered down, they have also identified some areas where enforcement and compliance can be improved, providing fertile ground for further public interest advocacy by gun control groups in Tasmania.
Contextualising the proliferation of small arms and light weapons in Nigeria's Niger Delta : local and global intersections : essayAuthor Godwin OnuohaSource: African Security Review 15, pp 108 –114 (2006)More Less
This essay explores the proliferation of small arms and light weapons (SALW) in Nigeria's oil-rich Delta. Its thesis is that the intersections which the global and local environment provide have fuelled the proliferation of SALW in the region. Since the conflict in the region is resource-driven, the global and local context for its resolution must be taken into account. Presently the situation in the region has assumed new dimensions, with the need for its resolution that the forefront of regional and national discourse.
Author Frida BerriganSource: African Security Review 15, pp 116 –119 (2006)More Less
Extracted from text ... African Security Review 15.2 Institute for Security Studies Another document, 'Targeting ammunition', features a glossy full-color photo of golden bullets against a blue woven fabric of indeterminate ethnic origin. Produced by the Center for International Cooperation and Security and project partners, the document outlines a plan to "provide comprehensive framing, profile and analysis of the ammunition issues" for the research and policy-making communities. IANSA - the International Network on Small Arms, which includes more than 700 civil society groups throughout the world - distributed a CD compilation of more than 1, 000 documents on proliferation and misuse of small arms ..
The failure of the UN Review Conference and implications for global efforts to prevent small arms violence : commentarySource: African Security Review 15, pp 120 –124 (2006)More Less
Extracted from text ... African Security Review 15.2 Institute for Security Studies The failure of the UN Review Conference and implications for global efforts to prevent small arms violence Guy Lamb* At the entrance to the United Nations (UN) headquarters in New York stands a solitary bronze sculpture: that of a .45 calibre revolver with its barrel twisted into a knot. This sculpture aptly symbolises the vision of the UN: "to save succeeding generations from the scourge of war". It is estimated that the misuse of fi rearms result in hundreds of thousands of deaths and millions of injuries and disabilities each year, with ..
The global gun epidemic : from Saturday night specials to AK-47s, Wendy Cukier and Victor W Sidel : book reviewSource: African Security Review 15, pp 126 –128 (2006)More Less
Extracted from text ... African Security Review 15.2 Institute for Security Studies The global gun epidemic: From Saturday night specials to AK-47s* Wendy Cukier and Victor W Sidel * Praeger Security International, Westport, Connecticut, USA, January 2006, ISBN 0275982564, 310 pages, hardcover. Since their creation in the 14th century, small arms have been employed to kill, maim, commit suicide, repress populations and engage in criminal activities. From the mid-17th century, following dramatic improvements to the lethality, accuracy and efficiency of these devices, small arms began to revolutionise the manner in which wars were conducted and conflicts resolved. The main outcome of this development was ..
Author Douglas TuttleSource: African Security Review 15, pp 129 –132 (2006)More Less
Extracted from text ... Internationalizing and privatizing war and peace* Herbert Wulf * Palgrave Macmillan, August 2005, ISBN 1403949174, 280 pages, hardcover. Herbert Wulf's Internationalizing and privatizing war and peace poses two critical questions about the current state of war, peace and the various militaries of the world. First, what does the internationalisation of armed forces mean for their democratic control? Second, how does privatisation affect and impact on militaries and their democratic control? Each question is in itself a topic for a substantial publication, yet Wulf manages, succinctly and coherently, to marry the two related analyses into a mere 214 pages. During the ..
Author Jakkie CilliersSource: African Security Review 15, pp 133 –136 (2006)More Less
Extracted from text ... The African AIDS epidemic: A history* John Iliffe * Ohio University Press, co-published with James Currey, Oxford, March 2006, ISBN 0821416898, 210 pages, paperback. John Iliffe is Professor of African History at the University of Cambridge and a Fellow of St John's College. He is an African historian of international repute and one of his seminal works is the well-known text Africans: The history of a continent (1995). This study on the history of HIV/AIDS in Africa is no less impressive and benefi ts immensely from Iliffe's years of research and writing on the continent. Meticulously researched and clearly written, ..