African Security Review - Volume 16, Issue 4, 2007
Volume 16, Issue 4, 2007
Source: African Security Review 16, pp 1 –5 (2007)More Less
Mercenaries and private military / security companies (PMSCs) are different entities both in form and in substance. While PMSCs have over the years arguably proved to be useful in the restoration of peace and security, mercenaries are the antithesis of what Wright and Brooke call the 'peace and stability operations industry' in their contribution to this issue of the African Security Review. There is no doubt that mercenary activities continue to destabilise the African continent while at the same time PMSCs are increasingly seeking to establish themselves as legitimate service providers.
A study of peacekeeping, peace-enforcement and private military companies in Sierra Leone : featuresAuthor Leslie HoughSource: African Security Review 16, pp 8 –21 (2007)More Less
The four military interventions into the conflict in Sierra Leone between 1995 and 2000 met with varying degrees of success. One of the more effective ones was launched by a private military company (PMC) early in the conflict. In the following paper a comparison is made between different aspects of the PMC intervention and the interventions by national military and by multilateral forces from regional and international organisations. The findings are that the interventions of the PMC and national forces were more successful due to their clear peace-enforcing mandate, unitary structure, elite counterinsurgency training, intelligence-gathering capabilities, relationship with the public, incentive to win as efficiently as possible and role as a force multiplier for local forces. The failure of multilateral peacekeeping forces in peace-enforcing roles suggests that small contingents of elite special forces, whether donated unilaterally by governments or hired in a competitive PMC market, are not only likely to be more effective in bringing violent conflict to a halt, but could at the same time be helpful in building the capacity, loyalty and professionalism of local militaries.
Towards the revision of the 1977 OAU / AU Convention on the Elimination of Mercenarism in Africa : featuresAuthor Sabelo GumedzeSource: African Security Review 16, pp 22 –33 (2007)More Less
The revision of the 1977 Organisation of African Unity's Convention on the Elimination of Mercenarism in Africa (Mercenary Convention) is now long overdue. The existence of the Mercenary Convention has over the years failed to eliminate mercenarism in Africa, among others as a result of the manner in which it defines a 'mercenary'. The problem is exacerbated by the rapid growth of the private security sector in the form of the private military / security company (PMSC), which to a large extent arguably represents a new form of 'mercenary' outfit that is technically not covered by the Mercenary Convention. Because the Mercenary Convention was adopted during a different epoch in African history there is now a need to take stock of its successes and failures and determine how it can best be revised to address the new security challenges in Africa. In this contribution the need for the revision of the Mercenary Convention is discussed. Given the difficulties and challenges presented by the Mercenary Convention, the contribution advocates the drafting of two conventions, one focusing on the regulation of PMSCs and the other focusing on the elimination of mercenarism in Africa.
Private security contractors and international humanitarian law - a skirmish for recognition in international armed conflicts : featuresAuthor Shannon BoschSource: African Security Review 16, pp 34 –52 (2007)More Less
In recent international armed conflicts private security contractors (PSCs) have played an ever increasing role and military advisors and tribunals are facing the dilemma of assessing the primary and secondary status of PSCs under international humanitarian law. In this article the misconception that PSCs are necessarily mercenaries will be dispelled. The possibility that PSCs might be categorised as combatants or civilians will then be explored. The conclusion is that where they are incorporated into the armed forces of a state, PSCs might attain combatant status. However, given that states are reluctant to formally incorporate PSCs into their armed forces, they will most likely remain essentially civilian. Their degree of participation in hostilities will determine whether they retain their immunity under international humanitarian law from attack and prosecution (as civilians) or whether they are rendered unlawful belligerents.
Author Issaka K. SouareSource: African Security Review 16, pp 54 –58 (2007)More Less
The crisis over Western Sahara started in the early 1970s, when Spain was forced to announce plans to withdraw from the territory it had effectively occupied since 1934. But when Spain abandoned the territory in February 1976, the Kingdom of Morocco, which lies to the north, and Mauritania, located to the east and south of the country, sent troops to occupy parts of what was then called 'Spanish Sahara', with the lion's share going to Morocco.
Author Mariam Bibi JoomaSource: African Security Review 16, pp 59 –62 (2007)More Less
'We want to organise a protest outside the embassy to make people aware of what's going on in Darfur,' stated a request to the Institute for Security Studies from a local university society keen on raising levels of awareness and activism on relevant issues affecting the African continent. Certainly this was an encouraging sign from what has often unfairly been characterised as a politically apathetic South African 'born free generation'. But in response to the question on how they view the Darfur conflict and what the aims of a protest campaign would be, the students admitted that they were aware of their lack of understanding of the politics but added that something needed to be done in the face of ongoing genocide in Darfur.
Source: African Security Review 16, pp 63 –64 (2007)More Less
The United Nations-African Union Mission in Darfur : implications and prospects for success : essaysAuthor Sarah E. KrepsSource: African Security Review 16, pp 66 –79 (2007)More Less
With the security situation in Darfur remaining grim, the international community passed United Nations Security Resolution 1769 that authorised a more robust peacekeeping force. This article addresses the security concerns motivating the United Nations-African Union Mission in Darfur (UNAMID), highlights the mandate and implications of the force, and compares the potential command and control issues to the experiences of the Somalia intervention in the 1990s. It closes by analysing the prospects for success of the intervention and offering some limited recommendations on ways to mitigate the risks associated with the peacekeeping effort.
Author Costantino PischeddaSource: African Security Review 16, pp 80 –96 (2007)More Less
This article contains a plan on how the African Union / United Nations hybrid force authorised by the UN Security Council in July 2007 could realistically and effectively use military power to save civilian lives in Darfur. It is envisaged that the international force, given its limited size, would mainly focus on protecting and policing refugee and internally displaced persons camps, rather than trying to stop all violence in the region. This intervention is unlikely to provoke a violent military reaction from the Sudanese government. In fact, a careful analysis of the conflict suggests that Khartoum has been engaged in a scorched-earth counterinsurgency rather than in an attempt to exterminate Darfur's 'black' population as an end in itself, and thus would stand to benefit from interveners' efforts to keep the camps demilitarised.
Author Rachel ZedeckSource: African Security Review 16, pp 98 –104 (2007)More Less
Before discussing the potential impact of private military and security companies (PMSCs) on human security in Africa, it is important to provide a framework for the discussion. 'Human security' refers to the 'complex of interrelated threats associated with civil war, genocide and the displacement of populations' (HSRP 2005, section VIII). It is primarily concerned with the protection, particularly from violence and the fear of violence, of a civilian population. However, human security may also relate to threats associated with poverty, lack of state capacity and various forms of socio-economic and political inequity (HSRP 2005).
Source: African Security Review 16, pp 105 –110 (2007)More Less
The international community has witnessed a growing trend over the past ten to 15 years of for-profit firms playing an increasingly important role as partners supporting peace, stability and reconstruction operations in conflict, post-conflict and post-disaster environments around the world. Nowhere else has the need for, and use of, contractors become more apparent than on the African continent. Hired as expert field operators by clients that include national governments, the United Nations, the African Union, non-government organisations (NGOs) and multi-national corporations, these companies have proven themselves to be indispensable and cost-effective contributors to the restoration of peace and stability to populations suffering the consequences of armed conflict, civil war and natural disaster.
Oh Big Brother, where art thou? On the Internet, of course ... the use of intrusive methods of investigation by state intelligence services : commentariesAuthor Lauren HuttonSource: African Security Review 16, pp 111 –116 (2007)More Less
Citizens in a democracy place a premium on civil liberties and freedoms. The issue of the use of intrusive methods of surveillance by state intelligence services domestically against citizens of the state is, therefore, often viewed with concern. Many states struggle to balance human rights and democratic freedoms with the need to provide security and to be able to counter threats to the state.
The security-development nexus : Expressions of sovereignty and securitization in Southern Africa, edited by Lars Buur, Steffen Jensen and Finn Stepputat : book reviewAuthor Gerhard HugoSource: African Security Review 16, pp 118 –120 (2007)More Less
The events of 9/11 and the subsequent US-led war on terror have created a new level of awareness about security in the international arena. The invasion of Iraq and the attempts to reconstruct that state have also focused the world's attention on the link between development and security. In this book, however, the authors argue that although the events of 9/11 and the war on terror have cast new light on the security-development nexus, this is really a rediscovery of an old debate rather than a new phenomenon.