African Security Review - Volume 18, Issue 3, 2009
Volume 18, Issue 3, 2009
Source: African Security Review 18, pp V –IX (2009)More Less
Maritime piracy in Africa : the humanitarian dimension, Donna Nincic : feature
Bad order at sea : from the Gulf of Aden to the Gulf of Guinea, Francois Vreÿ : feature
Sea piracy and maritime security in the Horn of Africa : the Somali coast and Gulf of Aden in perspective, Freedom C. Onuoha : feature
Enhancing regional maritime cooperation in Africa : the planned end state, Paul Musili Wambua : feature
Maritime security and international law in Africa, John Gibson : feature
Financial disclosure in three African countries : all bark and little bite, Rosemary Vickerman : Africa watch
The legal challenge of civil militia groups in Kenya, H. Nanjala Nyabola : essay
Whose security? Understanding the Niger Delta crisis as a clash of two security conceptions, Ufo Okeke Uzodike and Christopher Isike : essay
Distance education and e-learning : the SANDF should get it right! Abel Esterhuyse : commentary
Author Donna NincicSource: African Security Review 18, pp 2 –16 (2009)More Less
Maritime piracy has been a challenge for mariners as long as ships have gone to sea. In ancient times, Julius Caesar was captured and held for ransom by pirates. More recently, but still in the historical past, pirates have challenged merchant shipping from the Spanish Main to the Barbary Coast, and in Asia the famous 'pirate queen' Cheng I Sao commanded a fleet of hundreds of vessels.
Author Francois VreySource: African Security Review 18, pp 17 –30 (2009)More Less
At the dawn of the 21st century - in particular as a result of increasing bad order at sea - maritime matters have increasingly edged their way upwards on national and international security agendas. Kaplan recently reiterated the conflict-commerce and resource connections in an essay published in Foreign Affairs in which he depicted the Indian Ocean as the future battleground between the rising powers of India and China. In a similar vein, Forrest and Souza pointed to the Gulf of Guinea in the western Atlantic as a maritime zone of international strategic importance, but one showing growing disorder at sea.
Sea piracy and maritime security in the Horn of Africa : the Somali coast and Gulf of Aden in perspective : featureAuthor Freedom C. OnuohaSource: African Security Review 18, pp 31 –44 (2009)More Less
The security of national and international waterways cannot be overemphasised, for obvious reasons. The ocean serves as a medium of transportation, a source of economic exploitation of such mineral resources as crude oil, and a source of food in the form of fishing and shrimp fishing. This has made the issue of the security of waterways (maritime security) a subject of serious concern to states, international organisations and other stakeholders in the maritime domain.
Author Paul Musili WambuaSource: African Security Review 18, pp 45 –59 (2009)More Less
Maritime affairs involve cooperation to a degree that does not fit in easily with the staunchly defended concepts of sovereignty and jurisdiction. However, issues of maritime governance transcend national, geographical and political boundaries. The best illustration of its transnational nature is the recent hijacking of vessels in the increasingly dangerous waters off the coast of Somalia. The Ukrainian-owned MV Faina, for instance, was hijacked in October 2008 and remained in the hands of the pirates until February 2009. Aboard the ship was a lethal cargo of 33 T72 tanks and an assortment of ammunition destined for the Port of Mombasa in Kenya. Another ship, the MV Sirius Star, was taken by the same pirates in November 2008. The oil supertanker was flying a Saudi Arabian flag and was carrying about two million barrels of crude oil worth US$100 million destined for the United States. The effect of the hijackings was felt not only by the Ukrainian and Saudi owners of the vessels but also the would-be recipients of the ship's cargo in Kenya and the US - and it has repercussions for Somalia as well.
Author John GibsonSource: African Security Review 18, pp 60 –70 (2009)More Less
Ships and those who sail in them face many potential dangers, both from the natural perils of the sea and from the results of human conduct, which demand a precautionary response from seafaring nations. The promotion of maritime security, however, takes place within a context of international law that provides both opportunities and constraints. This article reviews the international legal principles affecting maritime security in Africa, and highlights some of their strengths and weaknesses.
Author David ZounmenouSource: African Security Review 18, pp 72 –73 (2009)More Less
Author Paula Cristina RoqueSource: African Security Review 18, pp 74 –79 (2009)More Less
The period January - July 2009 has witnessed the descent of Somalia from a promising state of political accommodation and the success of the Djibouti peace process in January to a state of politico-military anarchy that was highlighted by the Al Shabaab and Hizbul Islam surge for Mogadishu in May 2009.
Author Rosemary VickermanSource: African Security Review 18, pp 80 –87 (2009)More Less
Numerous countries use financial interest declarations to assist with managing conflicts of interest, which have seemingly become more commonplace in a world in which the divide between the public and private spheres is becoming increasingly blurred. Africa, in this regard, does not appear to have enjoyed great success. Despite the adoption of the African Union Anti-Corruption Convention in 2003, which requires members of the public service to declare their financial interests, many countries have not acceded to this. Only 28 of the 53 African Union states have signed and ratified the convention.
Author H. Nanjala NyabolaSource: African Security Review 18, pp 90 –102 (2009)More Less
This article argues for an efficient prosecution, and it is in bridging this efficiency gap between a nominal and an efficient prosecution that international criminal law and its attendant institutions can play a role. The judiciary in Kenya requires a strong system of checks and balances and international criminal law institutions can bolster the Kenyan judiciary's prosecution of civil militias by filling in technical gaps. The ICC enshrines this principle under its complementarity regime that recognises the primacy of national jurisdictions over international prosecutions but allows room for cooperation between the two. Bassiouni notes that international prosecutions as a matter of policy focus on the prosecution of decision-making officials, and if this were done in Kenya it would reduce the social tension such a prosecution can place on the already fragmented state. In the case of Kenya, speculation about the role that ethnic considerations play in the prosecution of civil militias could be reduced by an international prosecution of the ringleaders and / or financiers of the movements. This would also diffuse the potential for violence.
Source: African Security Review 18, pp 103 –116 (2009)More Less
The article argues that these questions remain a dominant feature of the crisis, thus reaffirming the need for a paradigm shift by the Nigerian state with regard to its security focus from an authoritarian state-centric perspective that views citizen agitation and resistance as 'terrorism', to human-centric perspective that will justify its Lockean essence. This shift in perspective is particularly apt now that it is becoming obvious that the state's militarisation of the region is only stoking the flames of ethnic-nationalism and exacerbating violence and criminality with attendant consequences for Nigeria's political economy. Such a shift will help rebuild the confidence in the government and will serve to recreate the basis for the state (government) to reclaim legitimately its role as the primary mode of societal organisation and state building.
Author Abel EsterhuyseSource: African Security Review 18, pp 118 –123 (2009)More Less
Education in South Africa is a controversial issue. In the military context, education is even more complex. The South African military struggled and is still struggling to development an educational ethos at those Education, Training and Development (ETD) institutions primarily responsible for education. This specifically concerns the Military Academy and its Faculty of Military Science, the National War College and the National Defence College. Worldwide military education faces an era that is primarily information driven, in which electronic and other forms of communication has made distance almost irrelevant, and in which there is a growing demand for well-educated soldier-diplomats and soldier-scholars. These considerations necessitate the development and roll-out of a distance education (DE) and e-learning system in the SANDF as a matter of urgency.
To patrol is to control : ensuring situational awareness in Africa's maritime exclusive economic zones : commentaryAuthor O.S. IbrahimSource: African Security Review 18, pp 124 –131 (2009)More Less
Africa's EEZ should be safe for navigation, commerce, and sustainable exploitation of its natural resources. However, the challenge of securing Africa's waters is enormous and requires great effort. Situation awareness in the maritime domain is a continuum that begins far beyond the borders of individual African nations and requires a critical blend of tangible resources such as equipment and personnel, along with intangible items such as useful intelligence and strong partnerships. Situation awareness provides the basis to make near-real-time strategic and tactical decisions on response to maritime threats in Africa's EEZ. Effective control will include the use of, among others, sensors, rapid response capable maritime or land-based platforms, and effective command and control systems. Integration of situational awareness platforms in order to control Africa's EEZ effectively and unifying the security initiatives of African sub-regions are critical to success.
Author Hussein SolomonSource: African Security Review 18, pp 134 –136 (2009)More Less
Contemporary piracy and maritime terrorism : The threat to international security, Martin N. Murphy : book reviewAuthor Conway WaddingtonSource: African Security Review 18, pp 137 –139 (2009)More Less
Murphy begins by examining piracy and terrorism as two separate phenomena. He sketches the geographic, political and social factors favourable to the development of both, and then provides a breakdown of the methodology of piracy. Instead of focusing on maritime safety, Murphy examines the security threat posed by piracy. This includes a vulnerability assessment of states and regions as well as a threat assessment based on the possibility that piracy may extend beyond the borders of a littoral state, for instance through its effects on a fragile international shipping industry. These observations are ably supported by case studies of South-East Asia and Somalia. Murphy shows that the evaluation of piracy and its effects are problematic, but that taken as a whole, the financial cost of piracy is in itself not significantly damaging to the global economy.
Author Nadia AhmadouSource: African Security Review 18, pp 140 –143 (2009)More Less
The easy style and simplicity with which Dowden sketches the realities of the continent make this book accessible to all, without detracting from the importance of the points he makes. This brilliant publication has a place in the bookshelves of scholars and laymen alike and provides a fresh outlook on a continent which is generally viewed with pessimism.