SA Crime Quarterly - Volume 2015, Issue 51, 2015
Volumes & issues
Volume 2015, Issue 51, 2015
Source: SA Crime Quarterly 2015, pp 3 –4 (2015)More Less
Violence permeates and profoundly affects almost every aspect of our lives in South Africa. It poses a significant threat to the overall health and well-being of our nation and has a negative impact on development. Major strides are being made internationally in how to best respond to provide services for survivors of violence, particularly in the field of gender-based violence. There is, however, an urgent need to complement what is being done in the field of response with primary prevention programming.
Source: SA Crime Quarterly 2015, pp 5 –7 (2015) http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/sacq.v51i1.1More Less
High levels of violence affect every family in South Africa. Exposure to violence starts early, in both the home and community. There are high levels of physical abuse of children, and the national under-five homicide rate is more than double that of other low- and middle-income countries. Rates of violence are particularly high in poorer communities in the country, and many children already made vulnerable by poverty are also at risk from increased exposure to violence.
Spare the rod and save the child - assessing the impact of parenting on child behaviour and mental healthSource: SA Crime Quarterly 2015, pp 9 –22 (2015) http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/sacq.v51i1.2More Less
Parenting has a considerable impact on children's behaviour and mental health. Improving child health and behaviour requires an understanding of the relationship between parenting practices; contexual factors such as parental mental health, intimate partner violence, substance abuse and poverty; and children's behaviour. In this article the authors report the findings of a survey of parenting and child behaviour in a small rural South African community. The findings show that corporal punishment, the stress of parenting and parental mental health are significantly associated with both children's internalising (depression and anxiety) and externalising (rule-breaking and aggression) symptoms. Intimate partner violence in the home was also associated with children's externalising symptoms. These findings imply that parent support and training, and an increase in services to address intimate partner violence and mental health problems, should be prioritised as part of a national violence reduction strategy.
Source: SA Crime Quarterly 2015, pp 23 –29 (2015) http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/sacq.v51i1.3More Less
Violence and violent crime are significant social problems in South Africa. Yet currently these problems are only addressed as or after they occur, with the state and civil society missing valuable opportunities to prevent violence before it happens. This article focuses on the intersection between early childhood development services and primary violence prevention interventions. It encourages a developmental approach to violence prevention by promoting healthy physical and social development and preventing direct and indirect exposure to violence during early childhood. The article outlines the extent to which this approach is currently reflected in South Africa's policy framework and proposes areas of intervention based on local and international literature.
Source: SA Crime Quarterly 2015, pp 31 –41 (2015) http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/sacq.v51i1.4More Less
South Africa has a number of locally evaluated interventions that have been designed to prevent sexual and intimate partner violence before it occurs. This article describes such programmes that have been evaluated and found to be promising or effective. Seven locally evaluated primary prevention interventions are described, along with the evidence regarding their level of effectiveness. These interventions include mother-child, parent-teen, individual and group-based interventions. All of these interventions are developed based on evidence and primary prevention principles: a sound theory of change, cultural relevance, participatory methods and evaluation through randomised controlled trials.
Improving the efficiency of evidence-based interventions - the strengths and limitations of randomised controlled trialsSource: SA Crime Quarterly 2015, pp 43 –52 (2015) http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/sacq.v51i1.5More Less
Globally, randomised controlled trials (RCTs) are increasingly seen as the gold standard of programme evaluation, representing the best way to determine whether new interventions are effective - but they are not without limitations. In this article, we discuss the phases of scientific discovery and the research standards that are necessary before scaling up interventions. We also outline the core characteristics of RCTs, such as randomisation, efficacy and effectiveness, and discuss the benefits of using the RCT as the standard of intervention evaluation. We discuss how 'realist' evaluation contributes to what policymakers need to know in order to make a decision about an evaluation and alternatives to the RCT, such as stepped wedge, regression discontinuity, non-randomised cohort, and time series designs.
Source: SA Crime Quarterly 2015, pp 53 –55 (2015) http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/sacq.v51i1.6More Less
Public health violence primary prevention programmes are designed to engage all people, not only at-risk groups. Currently programmes such as those described in the Jama Shai and Sikweyiya article in this edition tend to focus on groups at different stages of the lifespan - for example, parents and infants, or teenagers, or young adult community members. There is no evidence to suggest that targeting one developmental period over another is more effective. Given the onset of risk factors early in life (as discussed in the Skeen et al article in this edition), and the likelihood of continued exposure to risk factors, primary prevention efforts must start early and continue to be implemented across the lifespan. Implementation of evidence-based primary prevention programmes across the lifespan is essential if we are to achieve the development goals of the National Development Plan.