International SportMed Journal - Volume 10, Issue 2, 2009
Volume 10, Issue 2, 2009
Source: International SportMed Journal 10, pp 61 –65 (2009)More Less
Diseases of the liver may have a significant impact on exercise capacity and physicians' recommendations for the athlete. Acute viral hepatitis is a systemic infection affecting the liver predominantly. Knowledge about the impaired hepatic function as well as hazards for other athletes especially in contact sports is mandatory for professional support. Differential diagnosis includes metabolic diseases, hereditary and autoimmune diseases as well as toxic and drug-induced alterations. The clinical spectrum of chronic hepatitis ranges from asymptomatic illness at one end to fatal hepatic failure. A close workup is recommended and the expertise of a liver centre often is essential. New drug developments allow the therapy of viral hepatitis with only minor or even without deterioration of athlete's performance. According to the severity of liver damage recommendations regarding physical exercise should be made.
Influence of temperature and protocol on the calibration of the Computrainer electromagnetically-braked cycling ergometer : original research articleSource: International SportMed Journal 10, pp 66 –76 (2009)More Less
Background: The RacerMate Inc. CompuTrainer is an increasingly popular ergometer in Sport Science laboratories, yet there is little information on the characteristics and validity of the CompuTrainer calibration procedure.
Aim: To investigate the effect of a range of environmental temperatures on the CompuTrainer calibration procedure and validate the power output against an SRM powermeter.
Methods: A bicycle fitted with an SRM Training System was attached to a CompuTrainer ergometer. The calibration procedure was repeated (up to 5 occasions) interspaced with 2min cycling at 200W and ∼90rpm. The cyclist then cycled for a further 2min at 200W for a direct comparison with the SRM training system. This process was repeated at seven different random calibration values at a range of environmental temperatures (15, 20, 28 and 38°C).
Results: At all temperatures there was a large decline in calibration pressure after the first 2min of cycling, with no further decline after 6min of cycling. This decline was inversely correlated with the temperature (r2 = 0.7). In low temperatures (15° and 20°C) the CompuTrainer significantly underestimated SRM power by 7.3 ± 5.8 W (95%CI: 4.2-10.4W; Range 1-18W; p = 0.0002) but was similar (-0.3 ± 4.4W) in high temperatures (28° and 38°C) (95%CI: -2.7-2.0W; Range -9-5W; p = 0.78).
Conclusions: Both temperature and calibration procedure were shown to affect power measurement and thus these authors have suggested an alternative procedure to enhance the reliability and validity of the CompuTrainer ergometer.
Physical exercises can reduce anxiety and improve quality of life among adults with intellectual disability : original research articleSource: International SportMed Journal 10, pp 77 –85 (2009)More Less
Background: Anxiety is common among people with a disability in general. Several studies have indicated that anxiety states may lead to hypokinesia and a 'sedentary' lifestyle. Anxiety reduction may improve the quality of life of people who suffer from intellectual disability (ID), as well as reducing health and social care expenses.
Objective: To determine the effectiveness of physical activity interventions on reducing anxiety and improving quality of life (QoL) of persons who suffer from mild ID and anxiety.
Methods: The sample consisted of 24 participants with the dual diagnosis of mild ID and anxiety. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three groups: aerobic training (n=8); leisure activities (n=8); and control (n=8). The aerobic programme (experimental group) consisted of three ergometric bicycle or treadmill sessions per week over a 6-month period (26 weeks).The leisure programme consisted of a varied range of activities (i.e. games and general exercises). The psychometrically sound, Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAM-A), was used to quantify the severity of anxiety symptomatology and QoL.
Results: Of the 24 participants, 19 participants completed the programme (experimental group n =7, leisure group n=5, control group n =7). However, only 16 participants agreed to complete the HAM-A. After 6 months only the experimental and leisure groups showed significant improvements (p<0.05) in the HAM-A.
Conclusions: The implementation of an aerobic physical training programme or leisure structural activity programme for individuals with ID significantly and clinically reduced their level of anxiety. These authors could validate their hypothesis that foresaw a positive relationship between a psychiatric disorder, such as anxiety, and physical activity.
Consequences of a busy soccer match schedule on team performance : empirical evidence from Spain : original research articleAuthor Carlos Lago-PenasSource: International SportMed Journal 10, pp 86 –94 (2009)More Less
Background: It has been speculated that a busy match schedule in sport can lead to player fatigue, which may result in underperformance during that period. There is also the risk of injury to the players.
Type of study: An inference study.
Methods: The sample consists of the 180 matches of the Spanish Soccer League played in the first 15 weekend match days of the 2003-2004, 2004-2005 and 2005-2006 seasons respectively by Spanish teams playing simultaneously the group stage of the UEFA Champions League. The dependent variable was the result obtained by the teams in the Spanish Soccer League matches. Data were analysed using multinomial logit regression with three independent variables: the number of matches played during the week, the match location, and the status of the observed teams as Champions League debutants.
Results: Contrary to conventional knowledge, this study indicates that Spanish Champions League teams did not perform below their normal standard at the weekend when they had also played a midweek match. In fact, the Champions League debutants performed above their normal standard in the weekend matches when they played a Champions League midweek match.
Conclusion: The risk of underperformance did not increase during the first 15 weeks of the Spanish Soccer League despite the increase in the number of matches played. This indicates that, to a certain extent, a top team can cope with a busy match schedule without underperforming.
Effect of high- versus low-intensity resistance training on post-exercise hypotension in male athletes : original research articleSource: International SportMed Journal 10, pp 95 –100 (2009)More Less
The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of high- versus low-intensity weight training (HIWT versus LIWT), with same lifted load in each session, on the post-exercise systolic and diastolic blood pressure response. Ten male bodybuilders with previous experience in weight training (WT) were evaluated during three non-consecutive days in exercises with the bench press, biceps curl, military press, and leg press. On the first day, one repetition maximum (1RM) was determined for each exercise, and then 85% and 42.5 % of 1RM respectively were selected as the loads in these exercises. On the second day, four sets x six repetitions of each exercise at 85% of 1RM (HIWT) were performed. On the last day, four sets x twelve repetitions of each exercise with 42.5% of 1RM (LIWT) were performed. The rest period between the sets and exercises was 2 minutes for all the sessions. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were determined before and up to 60 minutes post-exercise. Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures was used, followed by the Scheffe's post hoc test (Pπ 0.05), to compare SBP and DBP between and within the groups. The HIWT induced significant reductions in post-exercise SBP during all measures were seen, while after the LIWT programme significant reductions were shown only in the 20th and 30th min respectively. The HIWT programme led to significant decreases in DBP in 10th, 20th, and 30th min respectively, but the LIWT programme elicited a significant reduction only in the 30th min. It can be concluded that a WT programme can reduce SBP post-exercise, and it seems that the higher load is necessary for that effect to occur. Also, a WT programme with a higher load seems to have more effect on SBP than DBP.