International SportMed Journal - Volume 12, Issue 3, 2011
Volume 12, Issue 3, 2011
Cardiovascular parameters and body composition of professional female surfers : original research articleSource: International SportMed Journal 12, pp 104 –112 (2011)More Less
Objective: To analyse the level of aerobic fitness of female surfers ranked as elite athletes through cardiovascular and body composition indicators. Design: The research was descriptive. The study included 7 elite female surfers within the top 10 rankings in Brazil, who lived in Rio de Janeiro City, Brazil. To determine the anthropometric characteristics of the sample, measurements of body mass, height and body fat percentage were taken based on the 3-site skin fold test by Jackson and Pollock. Cardiorespiratory fitness was analysed by means of the Bruce Protocol Treadmill Test using an Imbramed®. During all tests, the following variables were monitored: heart rate, systolic blood pressure (BPS), diastolic blood pressure (BPD) and subjective perceived exertion. The variables were measured before and after the test. Using these variables, we calculated the aerobic functional impairment, oxygen consumption by age and gender (VO2_P) and the Rate Pressure Product (RPP). Descriptive statistics were used. The Shapiro Wilk test was used to verify the normality of the data, and Levine's test was used to analyse the homogeneity of the sample. Results: BMI was classified as normal, and the body fat percentage (10.00 ± 3.62) corresponded to a low fat rate. Although the sample subjects were athletes, they presented a waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) mean of 0.75m ± 0.03. A low HR (63±8.72bpm) was observed at rest, and pre-test systolic and diastolic blood pressure values were normal according to the American Heart Association Guidelines. The evaluated group had excellent physical conditioning. The VO2max (46.39±12.01ml O2/kg/min) was 40% greater than the expected value and was classified as excellent for women 30-39 years old, according to the American Heart Association. The RPP of the sample (30.188.33 ± 5.936.24 mmHg.bpm) was between effort reference values. Conclusions: The present authors concluded that elite female surfers have excellent aerobic fitness and body composition, indicating that the top 10 ranking female surfers in Brazil possess good physical fitness.
Source: International SportMed Journal 12, pp 113 –124 (2011)More Less
Background: Physical activity is one of the lifestyle-related factors that is decisive for the quality of sleep and for immune system stimulation. Research question: The purpose of this research is to evaluate the effect of high-intensity endurance and strength exercises, carried out in the morning, on the quality of nighttime sleep. Methods: Fifteen healthy, trained, males were assessed at rest and during endurance and strength exercises. Preliminarily, at least one week before testing began, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and maximal upper limb strength (maximal weight load, WLmax) were assessed. During each test session continuous monitoring by means of an actigraph for the rest-activity measurement was collected. Results: A single session of strength or endurance exercise positively influenced the parameters related to sleep patterns. The positive effects were particularly evident during the night immediately following the exercise. Both exercise typologies positively influenced the parameters, indicative of the total amount of sleep (assumed sleep and sleep latency). The quality of sleep, evaluated by means of number of sleep bouts, number of immobile phases, and the number of minutes immobile respectively, was also clearly improved during the first night for both types of physical activity. Sleep efficiency was significantly higher during the first and second nights respectively but only following endurance exercise. None of the parameters of sleep have highlighted statistically significant differences between the strength and the endurance sessions. Conclusions: This study shows that morning physical activity has an effect on nighttime rest, making it easier to fall asleep, lengthening the real time of sleep, and improving overall sleep quality.
Source: International SportMed Journal 12, pp 133 –140 (2011)More Less
Background: Studies of changes in body composition after ultra-endurance events have mostly been limited to assessing losses of body fat and body mass. Research question: The aim of this study was to analyse changes in body composition and circumference measurements after running an alpine marathon (42 2m). Testing was carried out at the "Pueblo de los Artesanos" alpine marathon, Torrejoncillo, Spain. Type of Study: Descriptive field study. Methods: Twenty-four amateur athletes (M±SD) age 39±10 years, height 174±8 cm and weight 71.8±11.0kg, took part in the study. A pre-post performance intervention design was used. Body composition was measured using bioelectrical impedance (visceral fat area, intracellular and extracellular water, proteins, minerals, total body water, skeletal muscle mass, body cell mass and fat free mass) and anthropometric measurements were taken for circumferences (neck, chest, abdomen, hips, right arm, left arm, right thigh and left thigh) and body mass. Results: A significant increase was observed (p<0.05) in the variables of intracellular water (27.4 vs. 28.1l), proteins (11.9 vs. 12.2kg), total body water (43.6 vs. 45.1L), skeletal muscle mass (56.2 vs. 54.9g.), fat free mass (59.7 vs. 61.1kg.), body cell mass (39.3 vs. 40.2kg.) and neck circumference, and a decrease in the variables of body mass (71.8 vs. 68.2kg.), visceral fat area (83.6 vs. 70.7cm2), and the circumferences of the abdomen (0.836 vs. 0.805m.), hip (0.968 vs. 0.951m.), left thigh (0.534 vs. 0.516m.) and right thigh (0.535 vs. 0.518m.). Conclusions: The results showed how the body composition of the runners was modified after they had participated in an alpine marathon.
Source: International SportMed Journal 12, pp 141 –144 (2011)More Less
A 37-year-old male triathlete presented with two episodes of acute onset of severe dyspnoea, cough and expectoration of pink frothy sputum during the swimming stage of two different races. On both occasions he was still able to continue the bike segment of the race but at a slower pace and symptoms improved spontaneously once he reached the shore and rested. All investigations conducted were normal leading to the diagnosis of swimming-induced pulmonary oedema.