International SportMed Journal - Volume 12, Issue 4, 2011
Volume 12, Issue 4, 2011
Source: International SportMed Journal 12, pp 145 –149 (2011)More Less
Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) describes a condition of hyperpnea-triggered airway narrowing that occurs in susceptible individuals during or after physical exercise. The pathogenesis of EIB is multifactorial and not completely understood, but it seems that inflammation of the airways plays a major role. EIB is present in a large number of otherwise healthy athletes. Studies suggest that the prevalence in the athletic population ranges between 10 and 50%.
Key symptoms of EIB include dyspnea, cough, wheezing and chest tightness.
Pulmonary function tests with pharmacological (e.g. metacholine, carbachol, mannitol) or non-pharmacological (e.g. eucapnic voluntary hyperpnea) challenges are the principal diagnostic tools for the diagnosis of EIB.
The therapy for EIB involves preventive / non-pharmacological (e.g. warm up exercise, avoidance of triggers) and pharmacological (e.g. inhaled corticosteroids and β2 mimetics) approaches. For the latter, the current anti-doping guidelines must be respected.
Source: International SportMed Journal 12, pp 150 –155 (2011)More Less
Peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAD) is characterized by a decreased oxygen supply of the lower limbs during physical activity associated with exercise-induced pain or other symptoms like muscle weakness. The basis of therapy is the treatment of atherosclerotic risk factors. Physical activity like walking has been shown to improve pain free and maximal walking distance by more than 100%. Recommendations for training are based on treadmill tests or a free walking test prior to training start. Reassessment is recommended in order to adapt training intensity and volume. Exercise training has to be prescribed systematically. Structured training programs are more efficient than unstructured.
Author Ulrike Korsten-ReckSource: International SportMed Journal 12, pp 156 –159 (2011)More Less
Increasing psychological and physiological demands on young female athletes, as well as the pressure from society for a lean and slim body can result serious health risks. Briefly, the triad is a combination of menstrual disturbances (amenorrhea or dysmenorrhoea), which may lead to a low mineral content of the bones and the risk of osteoporosis, and eating disorders (anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, or a combination of both), while the athlete undertakes excessive exercise.
The effects of an eight-week step-aerobic dance exercise programme on body composition parameters in middle-aged sedentary obese women : original research articleAuthor Fatma ArslanSource: International SportMed Journal 12, pp 160 –168 (2011)More Less
Background: Regular physical activity leads to significant changes in terms of the reduction of health-related risks. Research question: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of an eight-week step-aerobic dance exercise programme on weight loss and body composition parameters in middle-aged sedentary obese women. Type of study: This study comprised an eight-week randomised controlled trial. Methods: A total of 49 healthy sedentary obese women participated in this study voluntarily. They were randomly divided into two groups: those undertaking a step-aerobic dance exercise programme (n=29) and a control group (n=20). The subjects too part in a step-aerobic dance exercise programme for one hour per day, three days a week for eight weeks. The subjects' Body Mass Index (BMI), weight, waist circumference, waist-hip ratio, four-site skinfold thickness, fat percentage, basal metabolic rate and lean body mass were assessed before and after the completion of the step-aerobic dance exercise programme. Results: After the eight weeks of the step-aerobic dance exercise programme, significant differences were found in the subjects' weight, BMI, body composition parameters, waist-hip ratio (WHR), waist circumference (WC), fat percentage, lean body mass (LBM) and basal metabolic rate (BMR) in the experimental group (p<0.05). There were no significant differences in the control group after the experiment in terms of the same measures (P>0.05). Conclusion: The step aerobic dance programme proved to be a useful exercise modality for weight loss and in terms of body composition. There was a clear response to the eight-week step aerobic dance programme in terms of central obesity in sedentary obese Turkish women.
Source: International SportMed Journal 12, pp 169 –178 (2011)More Less
Soccer is a sport that is characterised by intermittent dynamics, with moderate and high-intensity efforts due to short-duration and high intensity repetitive actions. Currently, controlling athletic training is of vital importance for performance. Competitive soccer needs a high physical and biological preparation, since each of these aspects is necessary to be able to withstand the high loads of training and competition performed by the soccer player. This review analyzes two specific sections: (a) functional parameters, such as the game's temporal structure, anthropometry, oxygen consumption, heart rate, lactate levels and Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE); and (b) biochemical parameters, such as uric acid, glycerol, glucose and haematological levels. This review attempts to identify performance indicators that may help in the training of young soccer players.
Analysis of selected physiological performance determinants and muscle damage in a 24-hour ultra-endurance relay race : brief clinical reportSource: International SportMed Journal 12, pp 179 –186 (2011)More Less
Background: Numerous studies have analyzed changes in biochemical blood parameters in ultra-endurance events but never in an ultra-endurance relay race. Research question: The aim of this study is to analyze the biochemical changes in blood during and after a 24-hour ultra-endurance relay event. Type of study: Descriptive field study. Methods: The study was carried out at the Reto de la Plata 2008 sports race in Spain. Eight subjects (33±6.9 years; 172.6±3 cm; 69.3±8.7 kg) had to cover 340km in less than 24h in 20-minute relays. Each runner recovered while the others were running their legs. Blood concentration measurements of creatine kinase (CK), urea, triglycerides, glucose and lactate were taken immediately before the event started (T0) and at three other times: after the first leg (T1), after a relay in the middle of the race (T2) and, finally, during each subject's last but one leg (T3). Results: A statistically significant increase (p<0.05) was observed in the parameters of creatine kinase and glucose after the first stage of the event. However, the triglycerides, urea and lactate variables revealed no significant differences. Conclusions: Results demonstrated an increase in muscle damage as shown in the high CK values from the repeated 20-minute relays in the 24-hour ultra-endurance event.