International SportMed Journal - Volume 13, Issue 2, 2012
Volume 13, Issue 2, 2012
A survey of the participation in competitive sports despite musculoskeletal complaints : a cross-sectional studySource: International SportMed Journal 13, pp 43 –47 (2012)More Less
Context : It is not unusual for athletes to decide to participate in important competitions, despite an ongoing disability or injury.
Objectives : The main objectives were to evaluate the degree of confidence exhibited by injured athletes with regards to their participation in a major competition, and to profile the musculoskeletal injuries in a group of elite athletes prior to the start of an official competition.
Design : A cross-sectional survey.
Participants : The athletes of the Brazilian delegation participating in the IX South American Games, and the 2nd Lusophony Games who sought care from the Brazilian team's medical department with various musculoskeletal complaints.
Main outcome measures : Evaluation of athletes' degree of confidence using the Injury-Psychological Readiness to Return to Sport (I-PRRS) Scale, and profiling injuries.
Results : Regarding the onset of injury, of the 89 (12.8% of the 697 total participants) injured athletes who sought care from the medical staff, 42.7% of the athletes had been injured for longer than two months (n=38). Approximately half (43.7%) reported that the injury was recurrent. The most frequently occurring injury was tendinopathy (n=30, 33.7%), and the most frequent location of injury was the knee (n=14, 15.7%). When their degree of confidence was evaluated, the mean score on the Injury-Psychological Readiness to Return to Sport scale was 52, points (95%) CI (50.6 to 53.3).
Conclusions : The authors observed that some athletes participating in a major competition, even with existing musculoskeletal complaints, were worried about their injuries affecting their well-being and performance.
Comparing thigh muscle cross-sectional area and squat strength among national class Olympic weightlifters, power lifters, and bodybuildersSource: International SportMed Journal 13, pp 48 –57 (2012)More Less
Background : Few studies have compared anthropometric characteristics among national class athletes from different resistance training disciplines, such as Olympic Weightlifting (OL), Power Lifting (PL), and Bodybuilding (BB).
Objective : The purpose of the current study was to determine if significant differences exist in the relationship between thigh muscle cross-sectional area and back squat strength among national class athletes from the sports of OL, PL, and BB.
Methods : Fifteen national class athletes were assessed for back squat strength, mid-thigh circumference, and mid-thigh skinfold from which total thigh cross-sectional was estimated. A series of One-Way ANOVAs and Pearson Product Moment Correlations were used to compare groups and assess the relationship between variables.
Results : The OL (200.18 + 25.16kg) and PL (205.45 + 17.28kg) groups were significantly stronger than the BB (160 + 16.80 kg; p < 0.05) group. However, mid-thigh skinfold thickness (p = 0.36), mid-thigh circumference (p = 0.87), and estimated thigh cross-sectional area (p = 0.34) were not significantly different between groups. Thigh muscle cross-sectional area was weakly correlated to back squat strength in the OL (r = .42) and PL (r = .12) groups, but moderately correlated in the BB (r = .70) group.
Conclusion : Thigh cross-sectional area was of relatively minor importance in determining back squat strength for the OL and PL groups, despite these groups being significantly stronger than the BB group. Specific training protocols will elicit different outcomes with regard to muscular hypertrophy that may or may not contribute to a functional increase in back squat strength.
Resistance training and protein intake : muscular mass and volume variations in amateur bodybuildersSource: International SportMed Journal 13, pp 58 –68 (2012)More Less
Background : Optimal nutrition, especially in terms of protein ingestion, is a tool to enhance the hypertrophic response to resistance training. The ingestion of high amounts of dietary protein in conjunction with resistance training reduces the rate of muscle protein breakdown when muscular hypertrophy of optimal restitution is the goal.
Research question : The purpose of this study was to determine if and how protein intake increases muscular mass and volume after a six-month resistance training period in amateurs.
Type of study : Longitudinal 'one-within, one-between' study.
Methods : The sample group consisted of 13 amateur bodybuilders. The control group consisted of 36 amateur bodybuilders of the same age. Participants followed a controlled specific exercise protocol 3 times/week, using 3 sets of 8-6-4 Maximal Repetitions (MR). Subjects were interviewed about their usual diet to determine their daily protein intake, i.e. 2.03 ± 0.62 and 1.04 ± 0.05g/kg BW, in the experimental and control groups respectively. Anthropometric characteristics (body weight, body girth and skin-folds) were measured. A statistical analysis for longitudinal data was carried out using a random intercept model.
Results : No statistical evidence of dietary regimen influence in muscle increase or statistically significant interaction between time and diet were found. The statistically significant changes detected in some muscles (i.e. chest girth p<0.05) come down from time trends, supporting the authors' hypothesis that they had only a training effect on the solicited body segments.
Conclusions : This study's data analysis does not justify the excessive protein intake in amateur bodybuilders' diets aimed at increasing muscular mass and volume.
Source: International SportMed Journal 13, pp 69 –75 (2012)More Less
Background : Some factors can exert influence on leptin concentrations, such as physical exercise.
Objective : This study aimed to analyze the acute effects of concurrent training on leptin levels in overweight young adults.
Methods : This study used an experimental methodology which included 20 volunteers of both sexes, randomly divided into a concurrent training group (CTG n=10) and a control group (CG n=10). Blood collection was performed in individuals at rest after fasting for 12 hours, and leptin levels were analyzed by radioimmunoassay before and immediately after training. A Two-way ANOVA was used for statistical analysis with a significance level of p <0.05.
Results : The CTG group showed no significant reduction (∆ = - 9.91%; p = 0.98) in leptin after training (14.53ng/mL ± 6.79 pre training and 13.09ng/mL ± 8.46 post-training). The CG group showed a decrease in leptin from 27.09ng/ml ± 10.70 to 21.49ng/mL ± 9.44, but this difference was not significant (∆% = -20,67; p = 0.51).
Conclusion : A single concurrent training session with the characteristics of modalities, exercise intensity and length of this study did not promoted significant changes on leptin levels in overweight young adults.
Source: International SportMed Journal 13, pp 76 –84 (2012)More Less
Background : Thousands of masters athletes participate quadrennially in the World Masters Games (WMG). However, this unique cohort remains under-investigated. With a need for multifaceted solutions to the global obesity epidemic, investigating special populations such as those competing in sport at older ages may further understanding of the nexus between aging, physical activity and obesity.
Research question : To investigate body mass index (BMI) within the WMG competitors in context with national populations and health guidelines. To test the hypotheses prevalence of obesity in the WMG cohort would be less than comparative national populations and males would demonstrate a higher level of obesity than females.
Type of study : Cross-sectional comparative study.
Methods : 592 (44.3% male, 55.7% female) WMG soccer players aged 29-66yrs (mean 47.6, SD ± 6.9) were investigated via an online survey and compared to national populations, primarily a representative sample (n=9,501) of the Australian population (aged 30-65yrs).
Results : Analysis demonstrated a significantly (p<0.001) reduced classification of obesity compared to Australian and other national populations. The investigation revealed, amongst other findings, that male soccer players had higher BMI than females (p<0.001).
Conclusions : This study indicated that one key index of health, namely obesity, was on average far lower in WMG soccer players compared to a representative sample of population controls. This finding may indicate a lower risk for many diseases, such as type 2 diabetes or heart diseases, in masters soccer players.