International SportMed Journal - Volume 13, Issue 4, 2012
Volume 13, Issue 4, 2012
Author Jan L.M.A. GielenSource: International SportMed Journal 13, pp 141 –152 (2012)More Less
Diagnosis of ligament and musculotendinous unit injury and overuse represents an increasingly important clinical problem in the athletic population. A review of recent literature on diagnostic ultrasound in sports medicine is presented. There is limited, but increasing, objective proof to support the use of diagnostic ultrasound using in common sports disorders. The improvements in ultrasound allow visualisation of soft tissue injuries in exquisite detail. The ability to perform interventional procedures real-time with ultrasound is an additional benefit compared to MRI. An overview is given of ultrasound applications in sports medicine.
Localisation and pattern of spine fractures caused by horse riding-related accidents : original research articleSource: International SportMed Journal 13, pp 153 –160 (2012)More Less
Background : In the present study localisation and pattern of spinal fractures due to horse riding-related accidents were analysed.
Research question : What is the most common mechanism of accidents of equine-related spinal fractures?
Type of study : A retrospective review of patients who underwent spinal surgery due to horse riding-related accidents over a time-span of 10 years.
Methods : In consideration of ethics commissions, as well as data protection officers' requirements, data of equine-related spinal injuries were collected from the medical information and imaging systems.
Results : Forty-seven spine fractures were found in 45 patients. 40 patients (88.9%) were female and 5 (11.1%) were male. The median age at the time of injury was 38 years (range 15 - 74 years). Over 80% of the fractures (n=38) were localised between level Th11-L2. Type AO A fractures were found in 40 (85.1%), type B in 4 (8.5%), and type C in one (2.1%) of the cases. In one case (2.1%) a fracture on level C1 was classified as Jefferson III and in another case (2.1%) a fracture on level C2 (odontoid fracture) was classified as Anderson II.
Conclusions : Falling from the horse on the rump is a common mechanism of accident during riding activities. Then, axial forces exerted through the rump and transmitted through the lumbar spine are leading to fractures between Th11 and L2. Therefore the development of new safety vests which protect the thoracolumbar junction is important if the number and severity of spine injuries during riding activities in the future are to be reduced.
The effect of walking on the frequency and intensity of pain caused by muscle cramps in haemodialysis patients : a pilot study : original research articleSource: International SportMed Journal 13, pp 161 –169 (2012)More Less
Background : The pain, resulting from muscle cramps, is one of the most common complications of dialysis, which can result in disruptive dialysis sessions. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of walking on the frequency and the intensity of pain caused by muscle cramps among haemodialysis patients.
Methods : In an experimental design, 25 haemodialysis patients were randomly selected from three hospitals affiliated with Tehran University of Medical Sciences in 2010 for 8 weeks. The patients in the experimental group (n=12) followed a designed exercise program (walking) 3 days a week. They had to exercise for 20 minutes immediately after their dialysis session, followed by 10 minutes of bed rest and deep slow breathing, while their eyes were closed. The control group (n=13) did not receive any exercise program. The intensity of pain caused by muscle cramps was measured by the Numerical Pain Scale both before and four and eight weeks after the exercise program. An interview and self-reporting were used in order to check the occurrence of muscle cramps.
Results : The results showed that the frequency of muscle cramps was reduced eight weeks after the exercise program in the experimental group. Moreover, the difference between the two groups was significant (p=0.01).
Conclusion : It was concluded that a walking exercise routine is a safe and inexpensive way for reducing the rate of recurrence of muscle cramps in haemodialysis patients without any side effects.
The effect of a three-week Wii Fit balance training program on dynamic balance in healthy young adults : original research articleSource: International SportMed Journal 13, pp 170 –179 (2012)More Less
Background : Wii Fit is an exergame that purports to improve balance through a variety of balance training exercises. Despite relatively little research documenting the effects of Wii Fit on balance this technology has been implemented in educational and clinical settings, often with the direct goal of balance enhancement.
Research question : The current study examined the effects of three weeks of Wii Fit balance activities on balance in a group of healthy, young adults.
Type of study : quasi-experimental design with pre/post testing of effects of intervention.
Methods : A total of 19 individuals underwent an initial balance assessment using the star excursion balance test (SEBT) followed by a total of 8 balance training sessions using Wii Fit balance activities. At the end of the three-week training period the SEBT was re-administered both immediately following the final Wii training session and again 24 hours later on a subset of 11 participants.
Results : Significant post-training improvements were observed for all SEBT reach directions expect posterolateral and anteromedial. This was interpreted as indicating that dynamic balance had improved in this group of young adults.
Conclusions : Following Wii Fit balance training participants SEBT performance improved in 6 of the 8 directions. These results suggest that Wii Fit balance activities can positively impact dynamic balance as measured by the SEBT. Although replication of this study with other populations is needed, these initial findings suggest that Wii Fit may provide an alternative to more traditional balance training activities.
Source: International SportMed Journal 13, pp 180 –189 (2012)More Less
Background : This study compared walking frequency and associated variables between older males and females living in Spain.
Type of study : Cross-sectional analysis.
Methods : Logistic regression was used to determine differences in various intensities and durations of walking. The sample consisted of 1,504 people over 60 years of both genders.
Results : For low frequency of walking, there were no significant differences between males (68.2%) and females (68.4%). When the frequency increased to five days per week, the differences were significant: males (51.5%), females (43.5%). Level of education was found to be associated with the likelihood of walking: males (OR=1.9), females (OR=1.4) and perceived physical condition males (OR=3.0), females (OR=4.6).
Conclusion : Overall, the probability of walking, at a faster pace with the purpose of maintaining or improving fitness, was the same for males and females. However, the males walked more frequently than the females. Moreover, females with low self-rated physical fitness levels were most unlikely to walk on a daily basis. Physical inactivity was associated with low levels of education, particularly among males. These data suggest that the older adult Spanish population is insufficiently active and that females and those with low levels of education were the least likely to walk on a daily basis.
Effects of water exercise on physiological and psychological health in the Japanese : Kawane Spa Study : original research articleSource: International SportMed Journal 13, pp 190 –202 (2012)More Less
Background : Although several studies have reported on the relationship between water exercise and health, few studies examined the effects of water exercise on both physiological and psychological health.
Research question : The aim of the present study was to investigate effects water exercise on both physiological and psychological health.
Type of study : A randomised controlled trial.
Methods : Twenty-seven subjects were assigned randomly to either the water exercise group (WG) (n = 15) or the control group (CG) (n = 12). The water exercise sectionconsisted of a 45-minute/session, 1 session/week, for 10-weeks. Information on physiological health indicators were collected were : sex, age, : sex, age, : sex, age, weight, waist measurement, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride (TG), and hemoglobinA1c (HbA1c). The authors conducted 10-times-sit-to-stand tests. Psychological health indicator infstand tests. Psychological health indicator information was also gathered: the Short-Form of the Profile Mood States, the Self-Rating Depression Scale and the Short Form 8-Item Health Survey (SF-8).
Results : HbA1c (WG was -0.2% vs. CG was -0.1%; p = 0.01) and TG (WG was -5.5 mg/dl vs. CG was 48.1 mg/dl; p = 0.04) were significantly decreased in WG. The general health perception (WG 0.9 vs. CG general health perception (WG 0.9 vs. CG general health perception (WG 0.9 vs. CG general health perception (WG 0.9 vs. CG -4.4; p=0.03), bodily pain (WG 0.0 vs. CG 4.4; p=0.03), bodily pain (WG 0.0 vs. CG 4.4; p=0.03), bodily pain (WG 0.0 vs. CG 4.4; p=0.03), bodily pain (WG 0.0 vs. CG -5.6; p = 0.04) and vitality (WG 0.7 vs. CG -4.3; p in SF-8 significantly increased in WG. 8 significantly increased in WG. 8 significantly increased in WG. 8 significantly increased in WG.
Conclusion : This study showed that water exercise had several benefits, both physical and psychological.