International SportMed Journal - Volume 15, Issue 1, 2014
Volume 15, Issue 1, 2014
Evaluation of nerve conduction velocities of the median, ulnar and radial nerves of basketball players : original research articleSource: International SportMed Journal 15, pp 1 –12 (2014)More Less
Background : Many sports are associated with a variety of peripheral nervous system injuries that are specific to that particular sport.
Research question : The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of playing basketball on nerves in the elbow region.
Type of study : This is a comparative study that focuses on nerve conduction velocity differences between basketball players and sedentary persons.
Methods : The study included 20 male basketball players with a mean (and SD) age, height and weight of 22.5 (3.0) years, 190.3 (5.7) cm and 91.6 (12.4) kg, respectively. The age, height and weight of 20 male non-active controls were 22.3 (1.7) years, 172.6 (6.2) cm and 75.7 (8.4) kg, respectively. Limb length and the perimeters of the dominant arm and forearm were measured for each subject. The neurophysiological study consisted of measuring motor and sensory nerve conduction of the median, ulnar and radial nerves. Both the motor and sensory conduction velocities of the median nerve were significantly delayed in the dominant arm of the basketball players compared to controls. In addition, the sensory conduction velocities of both the ulnar and radial nerves were significantly delayed in the dominant arm of the basketball players compared to controls.
Results : There were no statistical differences between the dominant and non-dominant arms of the basketball players for the sensory and motor conduction velocities of the median, ulnar and radial nerves. The basketball players were taller and heavier than controls; in addition, their dominant upper limb length was longer, and their arm and forearm perimeters were greater than controls.
Conclusions : This study shows that basketball players have a tendency toward developing median (motor and sensory), ulnar (sensory) and radial (sensory) nerve damage in the elbow region, despite being asymptomatic. The mechanism of delayed motor and sensory conduction velocities in the median nerve may involve both traction and compression induced by the median nerve stretching across the upper extremity during movement. Entrapment of the ulnar nerve due to a hypertrophic medial head of the triceps or flexor carpi ulnaris may be the cause of the delayed conduction velocities in this study. Forceful repetitive movements and an overload of the triceps muscle are thought to be primary etiological factors in the delayed radial nerve sensory conduction velocity.
Determination of the foot strike pattern in runners belonging to a running team : original research articleSource: International SportMed Journal 15, pp 13 –20 (2014)More Less
Background : The number of runners has been increasing as well as the number of injuries related to this sport. Knowing the foot strike patterns of the runners has become necessary since there is a possible relationship between the landing pattern of the foot against the ground during running and the increased incidence of musculoskeletal injuries in runners.
Research question : The objective of this study was to determine the distribution of the foot strike patterns in recreational runners during typical training running pace.
Type of study : Cross-sectional study.
Methods : This is a cross-sectional study conducted with recreational runners who practice with running coach. A high-speed camera (image acquisition frequency of 250 Hz) was used to analyse the foot strike pattern and photocells were used to register the runners' speed. The foot strike patterns were classified into three categories: rearfoot, midfoot and forefoot. The description of the foot strike pattern and the characteristics of participants were done through descriptive statistics. Intra-class and inter-class confiability was evaluated by agreement percentage.
Results : Fifty-three runners, with an average speed of 12.6 km/h, were evaluated, and 98.1% of the runners showed a rearfoot strike pattern. Only one runner touched the ground with the midfoot first, and none were forefoot strikers. The evaluation method for determining foot strike pattern showed an agreement percentage of 96.2% and 100% intra-class and inter-class confiability, respectively.
Conclusion : The results of the study showed that the adult recreational runners who train with a one running coach, almost exclusively demonstrate a rearfoot strike pattern during running.
Energy cost of running in middle-aged amateur runners : is it affected by fatigue? : original research articleSource: International SportMed Journal 15, pp 21 –29 (2014)More Less
Background : The energy cost of running per unit mass and distance (Cr) is reported to increase or to remain constant after a fatigue test in young healthy adults. No studies had been performed on master athletes on this topic.
Research question : Does the energy cost of running increase after a half marathon in a group of master athletes?
Type of study : Pre-Post single group design.
Methods : Ten healthy master athletes took part in the experiment. The experimental protocol involved an incremental test to exhaustion, a half marathon simulation, and two sessions of energy cost assessments before and after the race simulation.
Results : Neither comparing fatigue to no-fatigue conditions (p>0.05) nor as a function of the running speed (p>0.05) could show a change in the group mean energy cost.
Conclusions : The energy cost of running is not affected by a half marathon race within a group of master athletes.
Source: International SportMed Journal 15, pp 30 –40 (2014)More Less
Background : Diving with self-contained underwater breathing apparatus (SCUBA) has become a popular recreational activity in children and adolescents. Compared to adults, children are expected to be at increased risk for hypothermia during SCUBA diving, which may also result in bradycardia.
Research question : The objective of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of hypothermia in children during an open-water SCUBA dive and to monitor the heart rate response.
Type of study : Single group interventional trial.
Methods : Measurements of oral, tympanic and skin temperature at several sites were performed before and after the dive. Heart rate was monitored continuously in 22 children and adolescents aged 10-15 years during a 30 min. dive (mean water temperature 18.7°C).
Results : There was a decline in oral (-0.9°C; -2.4%), tympanic (-2.3°C; -6.1%) and chest (-3.7°C; -10.6%), arm (-2.1°C; -6.3%), thigh (-2.1°C; -6.8%), leg (-2.4°C; -7.6%) and forehead (-3.5°C; -9.9%) skin temperature. Mild hypothermia occurred in four subjects. Heart rate declined continuously during the dive and was different 10, 20, 25 and 30 minutes after descent compared to 5 minutes after descent. Bradycardia was related with high mean depth and low water temperature during the dive but not with skin or body temperatures.
Conclusions : Significant heat loss and decline in heart rate occur commonly during SCUBA dives in children and adolescents.
Short- and long-term effects of a head-out aquatic exercise programme on body composition, anthropometrics and cardiovascular response of middle-aged women : original research articleSource: International SportMed Journal 15, pp 41 –49 (2014)More Less
Background : The assessment of chronic responses represents a major trend of research in the aquatic environment. Aquatic programmes have gained in popularity due to perceived health benefits.
Research question : The aim of this study was to assess chronic adaptations in middle-aged women participants in a head-out aquatic exercise programme.
Type of study : experimental, prospective.
Methods : Twenty-three middle-aged female subjects participated in a head-out aquatic exercise programme (26 weeks, two sessions per week, 40 minutes per session). Data was collected before starting the programme (pre-test), at the 13th week (post-test 1) and at the 26th week (post-test 2). Body composition was assessed measuring several body skinfolds. Anthropometrical data included measurements of weight, body mass index and several anatomical perimeters. Cardiovascular measures included the resting heart rate, systolic, diastolic and mean blood pressures.
Results : Subjects improved their body composition by decreasing their fat mass. While most anatomical perimeters significantly decreased, weight and the body mass index remained unchanged. The systolic and mean blood pressures decreased while the resting heart rate and the diastolic blood pressure remained stable. The main improvements occurred in the first 13 weeks of the programme, since most variables did not show significant variation from that point forward.
Conclusions : It can be concluded that: (i) a head-out aquatic exercise programme over 26 weeks promotes a significant improvement in body composition, anthropometrics and cardiovascular response of middle-aged women (ii) major adaptations occur in the first 13 weeks of the programme.
Functional and physiological effects of a 12-week programme of resistance training in elderly hypertensive women : original research articleSource: International SportMed Journal 15, pp 50 –61 (2014)More Less
Background : Few studies have investigated resistance training and its physiological and functional effects in the hypertensive elderly.
Research question : The study aimed to analyse the effect of resistance training on resting blood pressure, body composition, muscular strength, functional capacity and blood variables in hypertensive elderly.
Type of study : Randomised controlled study.
Methods : Participants were 17 hypertensive elderly women divided into a training group (n = 7) and control group (n = 10). The training group performed a 12-week resistance training programme 3 d.wk-1, with the following exercises: bench press, leg extension, pull-down, leg curl, biceps curl, seated calf raise, pushdown and crunch. The control group performed 12 weeks of passive stretching training 2 d.wk-1. Body composition, maximal strength, resting blood pressure, blood variables and functional capacity were assessed before and after the training period.
Results : There were significant changes (p<0.05) in muscular strength in the bench press exercise (28.6 ± 2.1 vs 32.6 ± 2.5 kg) and leg extension (22.7 ± 1.8 vs 26.3 ± 1.8 kg) and agility tests (6.0 ± 0.2 vs 4.6 ± 0.2 s), 10-m walk (6.5 ± 0.4 vs 5.5 ± 0.3 s) and lower limbs endurance (16.0 ± 1.0 vs 18.7 ± 1.8 rps). Also, the training group showed lower values (p<0.05) than the control group in triglycerides (79.5 ± 13.6 vs 137.3 ± 17.8 mg.dL-1) and blood glucose (85.2 ± 1.9 vs 95.0 ± 2.8 mg.dL-1) at post-training. No significant changes were identified in resting blood pressure and body composition.
Conclusion : Twelve weeks of resistance training were sufficient to increase muscle strength and functional capacity of hypertensive elderly, but without statistically modifying the values of resting blood pressure, body composition and blood variables.
Injuries at the Summer Asian Games 2010 : a prospective epidemiologic study in national athletes : original research articleSource: International SportMed Journal 15, pp 62 –76 (2014)More Less
Background : Recently, there has been increasing interest in gathering epidemiological data through standardised assessment for the health of athletes.
Research question : This study prospectively examined the epidemiologic profile of acute and chronic sports injuries incurred by the national athletes of the Korean Olympic Committee (KOC) during the 16th Summer Asian Games.
Type of study : Prospective epidemiologic surveillance.
Methods : All medical personnel of the KOC were instructed to complete and return a daily injury report form, and all physicians were asked to fill in the clinical diagnoses after a thorough examination. The frequency, characteristics, and clinical diagnoses of all sports injuries were examined, and the incidence and injury risk across different sports were compared. Chronic conditions prevalent in elite athletes were also assessed.
Results : The number of sports injuries that were reported was 725 (430 athletes); of these 725, 288 were acute injuries (209 athletes), including 68 recurrent injuries (58 athletes), and 437 were chronic injuries (305 athletes). The largest number of acute and recurrent injuries was reported in athletics (37 acute injuries and 16 recurrent injuries). Acute injuries were incurred in competition (n=126; 43.8%) and during practice (n=162; 56.3%), and recurrent injuries in competition (n=18; 26.5%) and during practice (n=50; 73.5%). The incidence rate (IR) of acute injuries was 37.9 (95% Confidence Interval [CI]; 33.5-42.3) injuries/1,000 athlete-exposures (AEs), and the IR of recurrent injuries was 9.0 (95% CI; 6.8-11.1) injuries/1,000 AEs. Athletics also showed the highest IRs for both acute and recurrent injuries (245.0 injuries/1,000 AEs, 95% CI; 166.1-324.0, and 106.0 injuries/1,000 AEs, 95% CI; 54.0-157.9, respectively). 26.4% (95% CI; 23%-30%) of the registered athletes sustained acute injuries, and 7.3% (95% CI; 6%-9%) of them incurred recurrent injuries. Basketball (67%, 95% CI; 48%-86%) and field hockey (66%, 95% CI; 49%-82%) showed high IPs for acute injuries and the IP for recurrent injuries was high in athletics (27%, 95% CI; 14%-40%). Lateral ankle ligament sprain was the most frequent acute injury (n=28; 9.7%, 95% CI; 27-29), whereas calf muscle cramps was the most frequent recurrent injury (n=11; 16.2%, 95% CI; 10.3-11.7). The prevalence of chronic injuries was highest in wrestling (n=31; 7.1%, 95% CI; 26.7-35.3), and the most prevalent chronic injury was chronic ankle instability and lumbar myofascial pain (n=51; 11.7%, 95% CI; 49.6-52.4, respectively).
Conclusions : The statistics of this epidemiologic study indicated the wide range of the incidence, prevalence and characteristics of injuries in different sports during the 16th Summer Asian Games, and the data from the sports might be compared using the statistical measures of the injury surveillance in this study. Therefore injury prevention programmes should be tailored to the injury profile of the respective sport for the major international multi-sport events.
Force plate vertical jump measurements and 30 m sprint performance in trained athletes : a short report : original research articleSource: International SportMed Journal 15, pp 77 –83 (2014)More Less
The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between short sprint time (30 metres) and several kinetic variables of the countermovement jump (CMJ) in a sample of trained athletes. A group of 12 trained athletes volunteered to participate in the study (mean ± SD: age 22.2 ± 1.2 years, body mass 67.5 ± 5.5 kg, body height 1.75 ± 0.02 m). Following a standard warm-up, participants performed three maximal CMJ trials on a Smith machine and three maximum effort sprints of 30 metres. The major findings of this study were the significant associations between 30 metre sprint time and the concentric phase of CMJ for both force and power parameters. In addition, non-significant predictive values were observed between sprint performance time and jump impulse values. The results are of practical interest for optimising training and assessment methods in sprint performance.
Mouth rinse with carbohydrate drink and performance : hypothesis of its central action : review articleSource: International SportMed Journal 15, pp 84 –95 (2014)More Less
Objective : In this review the current knowledge associated with the notion that gustatory inputs produced by intra-oral carbohydrates may constitute a novel ergogenic strategy for performance improvement is described.
Data sources : MEDLINE, SciELO, and Lilacs databases were used, and the search terms were: carbohydrate mouthwash, carbohydrate mouth rinse, performance.
Study section : The selection criteria established that only articles describing randomised, double-blind trials in humans would be included. All articles meeting these criteria that had been published on or before July 2011 were considered. In addition, other studies that supported the formulation of the authors' hypothesis were used.
Data synthesis and Conclusions : Overall, the current literature suggests that washing the mouth with carbohydrate solutions may result in improved performance during high-intensity exercise (> 70% VO2max), an effect that seems to last for about 1 hour. These authors propose that one possible mechanism through which oral stimulation with carbohydrates enhances performances involves the stimulation of cortical motor structures by excitatory inputs arising from the gustatory centres of the brain. They also suggest that this concept may be extended to other sports as an effective strategy for performance improvement.
Determining force and power in cycling : a review of methods and instruments for pedal force and crank torque measurements : review articleSource: International SportMed Journal 15, pp 96 –112 (2014)More Less
Objective : Evaluate existing devices designed to measure pedal force and crank torque during cycling.
Data sources : MEDLINE, SCOPUS, ISI Web of Knowledge, EBSCO, and GOOGLE SCHOLAR search engines. Commercial systems were searched using GOOGLE search engine.
Study section : Original research articles (49), conference proceedings (4), and books and magazines (8) were selected. Studies were selected only when they were full-length articles written in English, Portuguese or Spanish.
Data extraction : Variables of analysis for pedal force/crank torque devices presented in peer-review journals and commercial force/torque devices were the number of force components and moments measured, information on the type of sensor, the type of cleats and the application of each system.
Data synthesis : Thirteen references including articles, books and conference proceedings were found presenting technical details of devices designed to measure pedal force and/or crank torque and power output in cycling. Five of these systems enabled outdoor measurements. Commercial devices were mostly designed for measuring crank torque and/or power output.
Conclusions : The measurement of pedal forces and power output during cycling has been mostly accomplished using deformation based sensors (i.e. strain gauges) attached on the pedal surface, on the pedal spindle or on the crank set. Some commercial devices may fulfil the need for pedal force devices applied to field measurements, but there is still a need for studies to assess the validity, accuracy and reliability of these devices.