International SportMed Journal - Volume 15, Issue 3, 2014
Volume 15, Issue 3, 2014
Source: International SportMed Journal 15, pp 200 –204 (2014)More Less
Cancer and its treatment are often associated with physical and psychosocial impairments that influence activities of daily living and can thus have a negative impact on quality of life. Some side effects can last for years, and cancer as well as the therapy itself can lead to a greater risk for other chronic diseases. Physical activity plays an important role within supportive care. There is growing evidence of the importance and effectiveness of physical activity during and after cancer treatment. However, the optimal components of exercise for each cancer type at a given treatment phase remain unclear, so that current recommendations primarily entail general physical activity guidelines including specific modifications and precautions. Further research is needed to investigate different doses and types of exercise to identify the optimal exercise prescription.
Source: International SportMed Journal 15, pp 205 –224 (2014)More Less
Background: A variety of risk factors have been identified that contribute to the development of acute mountain sickness (AMS), including past history, ascent rate, exertion prior to ascent, and cardio-pulmonary comorbidities. Ascent rate and other factors associated with AMS-induction are currently examined.
Research question: It was hypothesized that rapid ascent is more likely to result in AMS than slow ascent.
Type of study: Prospective study. Methods: Group allocation was by subject's preference. Young adults (18-26 years old) (N=91) chose to participate in 1 of 2 groups: Group 1 (fast ascent [3 days]; n=43) and Group 2 (slow ascent [4 days]; n=48). Groups hiked from 2370m to 3350m. Physiological measurements, including heart rate, oxygen saturation, and symptoms of AMS were monitored each morning and evening during the 5-day expedition to Jiaming Lake, Taiwan.
Results: Baseline characteristics were similar between groups, except for significant differences in alcohol consumption (P=0.009) and climbing experience above 3000m (P<0.001). The incidence of AMS was not associated with the rate of ascent and was similar between groups. AMS-incidence was most prevalent in Group 1 at day 2 evening and Group 2 at day 3 evening that correlated with the initial reduction in SaO2 in each group. BMI>24 kg/m2 was identified as a risk factor for AMS.
Conclusions: The incidence of AMS was not associated with the rate of ascent. The development of AMS was closely associated with initial reduction of SaO2. BMI>24 kg/m2 also contributed to the occurrence of AMS.
Increasing incidence of hamstring injuries in Major League Baseball pitchers : original research articleSource: International SportMed Journal 15, pp 225 –230 (2014)More Less
Background: Baseball pitching involves coordinated movements between the upper extremity, trunk, and lower extremity. Among pitchers, hamstring injuries are the second most common lower extremity injury.
Research question: Investigate the 10-year incidence and demography of hamstring injuries in Major League Baseball pitchers.
Type of study: Descriptive study.
Methods: The Major League Baseball Disabled list from 2001 to 2010 identified 61 pitchers with hamstring injuries. Age, body mass index, throwing hand dominance, and days on the Disabled list were analysed.
Results: The annual incidence of hamstring injuries increased over time. Mean age at injury was 30.6 ± 5.1 years, mean height 188.7 ± 5.8 cm, mean weight 99.8 ± 12.1 kg, and mean BMI 28.0 ± 2.8 kg/m2. Mean length of stay on the disabled list was 27.7 ± 20.0 days. There was a correlation between age and BMI (p < 0.010). There was no correlation between days on the Disabled list and age (p = 0.275) or BMI (p = 0.908). There was no difference in age (p = 0.381), BMI (p = 0.736), or days on the Disabled list (p = 0.530) between pitchers with injured hamstrings ipsilateral versus contralateral to their throwing arm.
Conclusions: The incidence of hamstring injuries in Major League Baseball pitchers increased over time. Number of disabled days averaged 4 weeks, but was variable. Injuries contralateral to the throwing arm were more common but not more debilitating. These findings can be useful for preventive strengthening programmes and rehabilitation techniques in pitchers.
Source: International SportMed Journal 15, pp 231 –237 (2014)More Less
Background: Hamstring injuries in Major League Baseball result in man-games lost and medical costs that impact the player and team.
Research question: How does a hamstring injury affect a baseball player's subsequent performance?
Type of study: Descriptive study.
Methods: Major League Baseball players (non-pitchers) with a hamstring injury were identified over four seasons. Demographic data and days on the disabled list were recorded. Games played and at-bats were analysed for 2 seasons before injury, the season of injury, and 2 seasons following injury.
Results: Mean age was 30.7 ± 4.1 years (range, 21 to 39). Mean days on the disabled list was 15.9 ± 5.9 days. Games played for each season before injury were significantly greater than for the season of injury (p = 0.002 and p = 0.003 respectively). Games played for each season following injury were not significantly different than for the season of injury (p = 0.262 and p = 0.083 respectively). At-bats for each season before injury were significantly greater than the season of injury (p = 0.010 and p = 0.007 respectively). At-bats for each season following injury were not significantly different than the season of injury (p = 0.263 and p = 0.074 respectively). Seventeen players played one or less seasons after injury.
Conclusions: Most players with hamstring injuries returned to their same level following injury. However, this study identified a subset of players where a hamstring injury heralds the end of their career. These results can guide future preventive and rehabilitation protocols of hamstring injuries.
Heart rate and rating of perceived exertion in simulated competitive fights in Brazilian karate fighters : original research articleSource: International SportMed Journal 15, pp 238 –247 (2014)More Less
Background: The knowledge of the physiological responses of karate fighting can help coaches and trainers in planning training.
Research question: The purpose of this study was to determine the intensity of karate fighting by monitoring heart rate (HR) and the rating of perceived exertion (RPE), and to analyse the relationship between these variables in a protocol simulating a competitive situation of consecutive fights.
Type of study: Cross-sectional study.
Methods: Nine karate athletes underwent a protocol of four consecutive karate fights of one minute each, separated by five minutes of rest. Throughout the protocol there was continuous HR monitoring, and the RPE was assessed at the end of each fight.
Results: Values for HRmean, HRpeak and RPE were 162.0 (± 11) bpm, 182.5 (± 9.6) bpm and 4.0 (± 1.9), respectively. The HR values during fights corresponded to an intensity of 83.5% (± 5.3) and 94.0% (± 3.9) of the maximum heart rate determined in a laboratory exercise test. In addition, there were significant and positive correlations between the HRmean and the RPE (r = 0.59) and between HRpeak and the RPE (r = 0.67).
Conclusion: It was concluded that karate is a high-intensity sport and the use of CR-10 Borg scale may be a suitable method for the control of karate fight workloads in situations lacking objective methods.
Source: International SportMed Journal 15, pp 248 –259 (2014)More Less
Tendinopathies are common clinical pathologies leading to local disability and impaired athlete's performance. A diagnosis of tendinopathy is based on local symptoms under physical load and pain on tendon palpation. To verify structural alterations of the tendon, ultrasound and/or MRI examinations are useful. Basically, any tendon can be affected. However, highest rates of tendinopathy are seen in the Achilles and patella tendons of athletes. Sport-specific accumulation of complaints is usually explained by regionally higher tendon loading leading to intratendinous micro ruptures, with loss of hierarchical collagen fibre organisation.Non-surgical treatment is recommended as the initial strategy in tendinopathies at all locations. In general, the treatment approach is multifactorial and consists of both exercise and physical therapy. Different methods aim to stimulate collagen synthesis, reduce tissue adhesions and free nerve endings, as well as optimising the stress onto the tendon by improved load management. As a result of recent evidence, it can be stated that eccentric training regimens lead to favourable results with less pain and improvement in function within 12 weeks of application. Shock wave and laser therapy show promising results on pain reduction at some locations. Systemic or local usage of medication has to be considered as an additional, practically relevant therapeutic tool without significant evidence for use in athletes. Location-wise modification of treatment strategy has to be undertaken.
Serum magnesium in professional footballers during training and after a week of reduced training : original research articleAuthor Gerard A. HutchinsonSource: International SportMed Journal 15, pp 260 –264 (2014)More Less
Background: Serum magnesium (SMg) has been used as part of the pre-participation physical examination of athletes but the clinical usefulness of this biochemical index is unknown.
Research question: Do footballers have lower SMg during active rest than footballers involved in full training?
Type of study: Prospective descriptive study.
Aim: To compare the SMg of 3 groups: 23 professional footballers after active rest for a mean of seven days (RT), 23 professional footballers in active training (AT), and 63 less physically active males (CG).
Methods: After an overnight fast, blood was drawn by a standardised protocol from players belonging to the RT, AT and CG groups respectively. Each group was analysed on a separate occasion.
Results: The median SMg (IQR) in the RT, AT and CG groups were 1.3 (1.2, 1.4); 2.0 (1.9, 2.1) and 1.9 (1.8, 2.1) mg/dl respectively (p<0.0005 for the difference between RT and both AT and CG groups).
Conclusion: SMg in the RT group was significantly lower than that found in the CG and AT groups. The SMg of the RT group lay at the low end of the normal range for magnesium, and this may represent the chronic effect of football on this biochemical index. SMg may have a role as a marker of reduced training load in professional footballers. Physicians should enquire about the training status of these players before interpreting SMg levels.
Source: International SportMed Journal 15, pp 265 –274 (2014)More Less
Background: There is a paucity of data on the health risks and benefits of recreational cycling.
Research question: Describes the injury patterns, health risks and benefits of recreational cycling.
Type of study: Internet-based retrospective self-reported data.
Methods: Web based study of cyclist behaviours, injuries and medical conditions.
Subjects: The study was open to subjects over 18 years of age, who cycled at least 2 times a week with internet access.
Experimental procedure: Conducted using DatStat® software.
Main outcome measurements: Self-reported injuries and health conditions.
Results: In this study, 4792 subjects were >18 and met the authors' definition of a cyclist. The majority of injuries were taken care of by the cyclist with no effect on their ability to continue with their job or activities of daily living. At least 7.0% reported the use of performance-enhancing drugs. There were reductions in obesity (76.2%), cholesterol (66.1%), hypertension (50%) and asthma (58.7%) after cycling. There were increases in musculoskeletal complaints. Hand pain and numbness increased by 420%. Urologic complaints increased by 310%. There were decreased reports of all mental health diseases reported. Abrasions were the most common injury (53%). The most injured body parts were the pelvis/hip (15.5%), knee (14.8%), and shoulder (13.6%). The least injured body parts were the abdomen (0.4%), foot (0.5%) and upper arm (0.7%).
Conclusions: There is encouraging data that cycling results in reductions in obesity, high cholesterol, diabetes, asthma and hypertension. The greater health risks of cycling appear to be related to compressive forces on the perineum and the hand/wrist. Injuries are common to cycling, although the majority of injuries are minor.
Testosterone, cortisol, training frequency and playing time in elite basketball players : original research articleSource: International SportMed Journal 15, pp 275 –284 (2014)More Less
Background: The aims of this study were firstly, to describe the variation in total testosterone (TT) and cortisol (C) through the course of a complete season in elite male basketball players and secondly, to analyse their relation to training frequency and playing time.
Type of study: Observational descriptive with repeated measures and non-randomised sampling.
Methods: Eight professional male basketball players (27.8 ± 4.9 years; 97.0 ± 9.5 kg; 197.2 ± 7.3 cm; 24.7 ± 1 BMI) participated in the study. Firstly, blood samples were collected just after the off season period. These values were considered as baseline. During the competitive season, samples were taken periodically every four to six weeks, in a resting state, always after 24-36 hours break following the last game played. Eight samples were collected from August to April.
Results: TT concentration showed significant variations amongst blood samples: April vs. September (-4.4 nMol/l, p=0.010, d=1.1), April vs. October (-4.9 nMol/l, p=0.004, d=1.27) and April vs. February (-6.8 nMol/l, p=0.013, d=2.08). TT did not correlate with playing time. C concentration and the TT/C ratio did not show any significant variation throughout the season and also did not correlate with playing time.
Conclusions: The effect of a basketball season can be reflected in TT. It is interesting to differentiate between the three phases of the season: 1) pre-season, 2) first two-thirds of the regular season and 3) last third of the regular season, where fatigue accumulation at a metabolic level occurs. TT could be an indicator of players' state, which would justify, in conjunction with other indicators, the necessity to optimise players' workload and to individually prevent overtraining.
Author Javier YanciSource: International SportMed Journal 15, pp 285 –297 (2014)More Less
Background: Bilateral strength imbalance in the lower extremities has been studied in several sports as well as cycling and running. However, there has been little investigation of the differences in muscle strength and leg asymmetries in vertical jump between elite runners and cyclists.
Research question: The primary purpose of this investigation was to determine the differences in vertical jump capacity between elite athletes (runners and cyclists). A secondary purpose was to describe single leg vertical jump capacity and leg asymmetries in elite athletes.
Type of study: The evaluation sessions consisted of a different vertical jump tests.
Methods: 27 elite male endurance athletes (endurance runners and road cyclists) performed a countermovement jump (CMJ), single leg CMJ, arm swing CMJ and a 10 s repeat jump (RJ) test.
Results: The runners had a significantly greater (p < 0.01) jump performance in the double leg CMJ (19%), arm swing CMJ (27%) and RJ (16%) compared with cyclists. Similarly, single leg vertical jump performance was significantly better in runners compared with cyclists both with reference to the right leg CMJ (13.4%, p < 0.05), left leg CMJ (15.5%, p < 0.05), dominant leg CMJ (12.6%, p < 0.05) and non-dominant leg CMJ (16.4%, p < 0.01). Significant differences between dominant leg CMJ and non-dominant leg CMJ performance in jump height (leg asymmetry 5.5%) and power production (leg asymmetry 6.5%) were found in the runners' group. In the cyclists' group, significant differences were also found between dominant leg CMJ and non-dominant leg CMJ jump height (leg asymmetry 9.7%) and power production (leg asymmetry 14.6%).
Conclusions: The present study demonstrated a markedly higher single and double leg vertical jump capacity in elite endurance runners compared with professional road cyclists.
Oxidative stress status in female athletes with an IgE-dependent allergic response : original research articleSource: International SportMed Journal 15, pp 298 –307 (2014)More Less
Background: Allergy and asthma represent important problems for athletes. Also, exercise is known to induce oxidative stress and increase in reactive oxygen species during exercise might overwhelm endogenous antioxidant defence.
Type of study: Original research concerned the oxidative stress in athletes with IgE-dependent allergic response.
Research question: The aim of the present work was to assess oxidative stress biomarkers in elite athletes with known allergy and non-allergic controls.
Methods: Based on serum IgE concentration (cut-off 100 IU/L) and findings at physical examination, 66 elite athletes were divided into two groups: with some kind of IgE-dependent allergic response (n=19) and healthy controls (n=47). The following parameters were measured: White blood cell count (WBC), Immunoglobulin E (IgE), high sensitive C reactive protein (hs-CRP), Interleukin-6 (IL-6), oxidative stress parameters (reactive oxygen metabolites - ROMs, advanced oxidation protein products - AOPP and lipid hydroperoxides - LOOH) and biological antioxidative potential - BAP.
Results: Multivariate analysis of covariance revealed that IgE-dependent allergic response contributed 16.9 % to variability of oxidative status and hs-CRP and WBC to be significant covariates. Reactive oxygen metabolites (327 ± 81 vs. 294 ± 53; P=0.047) were significantly higher in athletes with IgE-dependent allergic response and biological antioxidative potential (2314 ± 344 vs. 2484 ± 226; P=0.031) was significantly lower in this group.
Conclusions: Increased reactive oxygen metabolites and reduced antioxidant capacity in athletes with IgE-mediated allergy lead us to suppose that free radical generation could be mediated at least in part via type I hypersensitivity response.
Source: International SportMed Journal 15, pp 308 –329 (2014)More Less
Objective: Magnitude and duration of the hypotensive response after a strength training (ST) session may in part depend on the manipulation of ST variables. This review examines the effect of the ST variables on the hypotensive response after a ST session.
Data sources: Thirty-two studies were included in this review. Studies concerning the post-exercise hypotensive response of ST session were searched on MEDLINE, Science Citation Index, National Library of Medicine, Scopus, Sports Discus, Scielo, and CINAHL utilising the following keywords and respective abbreviations: circulation, hypotensive effect, hypotensive response, hypotension, hypertension, high blood pressure, combined with resistance training, resistive exercises, resistance exercises, resistive exercise, strength training, weight training and weight lifting. Names of authors cited in some studies were also utilised in the search. Hand searches of relevant journals and reference lists obtained from articles were also conducted at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro libraries, Brazil. The last search was performed in July 2012.
Conclusions: The majority of acute studies support that ST produces a post-exercise hypotensive response after a single session. Larger hypotensive responses to ST are observed using higher loads (6RM, 80% 1RM) with trained subjects, moderate loads (40% 1RM) with untrained subjects, higher volumes (number of exercises), multiple sets (3 sets or more), large muscle groups (total body), circuit training programs, longer rest intervals with a traditional training format and shorter rest intervals with a circuit training format, and alternated exercise orders (upper body x lower body). The effect of age on the hypotensive response indicates that older compared to younger subjects show a greater hypotensive response after ST. In addition, some studies indicate that young trained subjects have a greater and longer hypotensive response after ST compared to young untrained subjects, while this latter population may show a momentary blood pressure elevation after ST, especially with higher training intensities (80% 1RM).