International SportMed Journal - Volume 2, Issue 1, 2001
Volume 2, Issue 1, 2001
Author Jenny McConnellSource: International SportMed Journal 2, pp 1 –9 (2001)More Less
Author Elizabeth BroadSource: International SportMed Journal 2, pp 1 –4 (2001)More Less
Despite the wealth of scientific research and information now known regarding dietary requirements of athletes, very little attention has been devoted to athletes with disabilities. Sports nutritionists working with these athletes are required to interpret their knowledge regarding the nutritional requirements for each athlete's sport in the context of the physiological and/or functional limitations imposed by the athlete's disabilities. For some athletes such as amputees, this might be a relatively simple task because, physiologically, they differ little from able-bodied athletes. When the disability is more than functional, however, such as in the case of spinal-cord injuries, the presentation of nutrition strategies requires an in-depth understanding of the individual athlete and an adjustment of standard practices to meet his or her specific needs. In addition, other medical issues, medications, and practical limitations can influence the athlete's ability to undertake a dietary change. Thorough, individualized assessment of athletes with disabilities is crucial to the successful application of sports-nutrition strategies.
Author Simon J. BartoldSource: International SportMed Journal 2, pp 1 –10 (2001)More Less
With the running boom of the mid-1970s came an increase in overuse injuries in runners. Foremost among these was patellofemoral pain. Because of this, much attention was focused on the biomechanics of the foot and lower leg and the influence that faulty foot biomechanics might have on anterior knee pain. Many researchers at this time felt that foot function was intimately linked to knee function and that patellofemoral pain was caused, at least in part, by abnormal foot function. Because of this, there was widespread acceptance that foot-orthotic devices could help treat anterior knee pain in general and patellofemoral pain specifically. Despite compelling anecdotal evidence that orthoses might be useful in treating patellofemoral pain, however, there has been little evidence to clarify the mechanism by which they can achieve a positive outcome. This article reviews the current literature and proposes a new theory for the mechanism of foot-orthotic action.
Source: International SportMed Journal 2, pp 1 –11 (2001)More Less
Patellar tendinopathy, a common condition in sport, can be recurrent and resistant to treatment. Risk factors include the level of training, biomechanics, and genetic factors. This review discusses several programs based on eccentric exercise and suggests principles for nonoperative treatment including improving shock absorption, load modification, and adaptation of the tendon to sporting stress. The level of pain that patients are asked to tolerate during tendon-exercise programs varies among programs, and it is unclear what level is optimal to stimulate tendon recovery. Rehabilitation presents several challenges : It can take a long time (3-12 months), exercise prescription in an athlete who is continuing to compete is not straightforward, and guidelines for treatment progression are poor. Nonoperative treatment can fail because of inappropriate exercise prescription and poor athlete compliance. If this occurs and surgical intervention is required, the athlete might still have an unpredictable outcome. Solutions to these problems require additional clinical research.
Source: International SportMed Journal 2, pp 1 –9 (2001)More Less
Anterior knee pain is common in athletes and active young adults. Exclusion of intra-articular pathology is essential to diagnose patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS). Unfortunately, the etiology is still not well understood. Three major factors can be attributed to its etiology : muscle imbalance, malalignment, and increased physical activity. Conservative management, a mainstay in the management of PFPS, includes rehabilitation focusing on proprioception, strength, flexibility, endurance, and a gradual progression of the musculoskeletal load. Surgery might be required if conservative management fails.
A review of the etiology, biomechanics, diagnosis, and management of patellofemoral pain in cyclistsSource: International SportMed Journal 2, pp 1 –34 (2001)More Less
Patellofemoral pain (PFP) is a common overuse injury in cycling, but its etiology in cycling is not well understood. It is associated with poor patellar alignment during knee movement from flexion to extension. Biomechanical factors associated with patellar malalignment include poor quadriceps function, vastus medialis obliquus insufficiency, extensive subtalar-joint pronation, and poor muscle flexibility. Factors in the biomechanics of PFP in cyclists include abnormal lower-limb biomechanics, incorrect bicycle and equipment setting, and incorrect training methods. Abnormal forefoot and rear-foot alignment are associated with patellar maltracking. There is anecdotal evidence that leg-length discrepancies and varus or valgus knee malalignment are implicated in PFP in cyclists. Incorrect equipment settings include saddle height, incorrect cleat position, and the type of cleat and shoe. Training factors associated with PFP in cyclists are hill training, cycling with high gears at a low cadence, and a sudden increase in training volume. The article reviews the etiology, biomechanics, clinical diagnosis, and management of PFP in cyclists.