International SportMed Journal - Volume 2, Issue 4, 2001
Volume 2, Issue 4, 2001
Source: International SportMed Journal 2, pp 1 –9 (2001)More Less
The purpose of this case study was to examine the effects of an exercise program on 2 women diagnosed with fibromyalgia. The protocol included a 24-week individualized walking program of increasing intensity; on-site physical and psychological testing at 0, 12, and 24 weeks; and completion of weekly logs documenting physical activity, rate of perceived exertion, and the impact of fibromyalgia on physical function. Results indicate an increase in fitness level and amelioration of both physical and psychological symptoms in response to the adoption of a regular exercise program, with a subsequent decrease in fitness level and aggravation in symptoms during periods of noncompliance. Although exercise can have a positive effect on fibromyalgia symptoms, health care professionals must monitor each individual's response to exercise and recommend the appropriate modifications when necessary. In this way, compliance will be maximized and the resultant benefits to the individual will be optimized.
Source: International SportMed Journal 2, pp 1 –8 (2001)More Less
Most agree that exercise should be part of the comprehensive therapy for most individuals with fibromyalgia (FM), but a specific, positive effect of exercise on the primary symptom of FM - pain - has not been demonstrated. Individuals with FM seem as "trainable" as healthy subjects are; any fitness gain should lead to improved physical function. Low to moderate endurance training could also improve muscle oxygenation and local metabolism, making patients less prone to muscle injuries. Exercise has positive effects on patients with FM, many of which could be explained by a change in attitude of the patients, particularly toward physical activity, rather than by any specific neurohormonal or muscular effect. Unless the patient is found unfit, the main goal of the exercise program should not be cardiovascular reconditioning. Low-intensity, low-impact cardiovascular workouts and warm-water poolbased exercises and stretching should be combined. Education about the disease is an important element of the program. Exercise-group sessions can also be useful.
Source: International SportMed Journal 2, pp 1 –12 (2001)More Less
There is no cure for ankylosing spondylitis (AS). In addition, there is uncertainty as to whether the long-term course of the disease can be altered, but despite this, most patients can be adequately managed. The treatment of AS has changed dramatically over the last few years. The cornerstone of medical management is therapeutic exercise, with the primary objective of maintaining normal posture and activity. Many kinds of physical therapy can be considered for patients with AS : supervised individual therapy, unsupervised self-administered individual exercise, and supervised group therapy. A highly motivated physician and biokineticist or exercise therapist are essential for adherence to an exercise program. In the end, however, the responsibility for exercising regularly must rest with the patient.
Source: International SportMed Journal 2, pp 1 –14 (2001)More Less
Osteoporosis is a major public health problem, and exercise is an important part of its prevention and treatment. Prevention begins in childhood with adequate physical activity and nutrition. New studies emphasize the role of prepubertal exercise in optimizing peak bone mass in girls. In the adult years, bone mass can be maintained with appropriate activity. Bone mass is not the only variable to measure, however, when considering bone health. Muscle strength and balance can also help prevent fractures in older age and should not be overlooked in the adult years. During the postmenopausal years the goal of exercise is to minimize bone loss. When there is low bone mass (osteopenia or osteoporosis), exercise remains integral to fracture prevention but is often avoided for fear of causing fracture. This article summarizes studies of exercise intervention in those with low bone mass and provides practical guidelines for exercise prescription for physicians, physiotherapists, and exercise trainers. Exercise for fall prevention is also an important strategy for preventing fractures.
Source: International SportMed Journal 2, pp 1 –11 (2001)More Less
Overuse tendon conditions have traditionally been considered to result from an inflammatory process and were treated as such. Microscopic examination of abnormal Achilles-tendon tissues, however, reveals a noninflammatory degenerative process. The histopathology found in surgical specimens in patients with chronic overuse Achilles tendinopathy and those with Achilles-tendon rupture are reviewed. Seminal studies suggest that so-called tendinitis is a rare condition that might occur occasionally in the Achilles tendon in association with a primary tendinosis. These data have clinical implications and require a review of the traditional classification of pathologies seen in tendon conditions. The authors recommend that nomenclature be based on histopathological findings rather than traditional hypothesis.
Author Kieran E. FallonSource: International SportMed Journal 2, pp 1 –5 (2001)More Less
Osteoarthritis is a major public health problem for which there is no cure. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are commonly used for this condition, but they have significant side effects. Glucosamine sulfate has been the subject of a large number of clinical trials and several meta-analyses and appears to be an effective agent in the management of osteoarthritis. There is some early evidence that suggests that it might reduce the rate of progression of this disease. The side-effect profile is excellent, frequently documented to be equivalent to that of a placebo. Chondral injuries are common in sport, and although there is currently no research evidence related to the use of glucosamine in traumatic or overuse injuries in sport, it is conceivable that glucosamine might have a role in these difficult-to-manage problems.
Source: International SportMed Journal 2, pp 1 –7 (2001)More Less
Delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS) is a common condition characterized by stiff, painful muscles after exercise. Exercise in which the muscles are stretched while resisting a load leads to high risk of DOMS. The muscle pain peaks about 24-48 hours after the exercise and can persist for up to a week. Morphological changes in the muscle fibers are indicative of cellular damage. There is no modality that consistently reduces the symptoms of DOMS, but many studies have shown that its severity can be reduced by a prior exposure to a bout of exercise. This is known as the repeat bout effect. It has been shown that a single bout of exercise can protect the muscle for up to 10 weeks. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) should be used with caution in treating the symptoms of DOMS; one study has shown that the short-term advantages after treatment with NSAIDs might be followed by negative long-term consequences.