International SportMed Journal - Volume 2, Issue 6, 2001
Volume 2, Issue 6, 2001
Author Martin P. SchwellnusSource: International SportMed Journal 2 (2001)More Less
Over the last 3 decades findings from case series, cross-sectional studies and case control studies suggested that certain lower limb alignment and flexibility variables are linked to common overuse injuries of the lower limb. Although the scientific evidence linking these abnormalities to injury is weak at best, it is still good clinical practice to perform a lower limb clinical biomechanical assessment to identify these abnormalities. The aim of this article is to provide the clinician with a basic approach to the clinical biomechanical assessment of the lower limb. Ten basic clinical lower limb biomechanical measurements are described. It is likely that this approach will change in future, as current new hypotheses on the factors associated with running injuries are tested.
Author Richard V.P. De VilliersSource: International SportMed Journal 2, pp 1 –4 (2001)More Less
Patellar tendinopathy, or jumper's knee, is a tendinopathy of the infrapatellar tendon common in athletes involved in jumping sports. The imaging modalities of choice are high-definition ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging because plain film radiography is almost always negative. Care must be taken to be aware of misleading technical artifacts such as anisotropism and the magic angle.
The pharmacology of new-generation nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents : selective COX-2 inhibitorsSource: International SportMed Journal 2, pp 1 –8 (2001)More Less
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) produce their therapeutic activities through inhibition of cyclo-oxygenase (COX), the enzyme that produces prostaglandins. Two COX isoenzymes have now been identified. COX-1 has mainly physiological functions, eg, production of protective prostaglandins, whereas COX-2 is induced by inflammatory stimuli or during tissue injury and produces prostaglandins that contribute to pain and swelling in inflammation and musculoskeletal injury. Standard nonselective NSAIDs inhibit both enzymes similarly, and thus the anti-inflammatory effects cannot be separated from the unwanted side effects, such as gastrotoxicity and renal impairment. Selective COX-2 inhibitors, however, are anti-inflammatory with reduced gastrointestinal adverse effects.
Source: International SportMed Journal 2, pp 1 –4 (2001)More Less
Athletes commonly present with sports injuries. The importance is to differentiate between a true sports injury and a possible systemic disease or rheumatological condition. The article deals with the clinical approach to rheumatological conditions mimicking sports injuries. A clinical diagnosis must be made before commencing unnecessary, expensive special investigations.
Source: International SportMed Journal 2, pp 1 –5 (2001)More Less
The conservative management of common musculoskeletal running injuries is often successful. However, apart from the clinical response there has to date not been an objective method of determining the effect conservative management has on common musculoskeletal running injuries. The aim of this case study was to describe the role of gait analysis in the objective quantification of the effect of conservative management on the treatment of a common running injury. A runner diagnosed with medial tibial stress syndrome was treated at the Sports Medicine practice at the Sports Science Institute of South Africa, and gait analysis was undertaken in the Gait Analysis Laboratory of the University of Cape Town at the Sports Science Institute of South Africa. Gait analysis data were collected before and after the prescription of customized foot orthoses and a comprehensive conservative rehabilitation program for medial tibial stress syndrome. The running velocity (m/s), peak vertical impact force (N), knee and ankle eccentric load (J) were determined from each series of gait analysis data. The self-selected running velocity increased minimally from the first to second gait analysis tests. There was a reduction in the vertical impact and active force values from the first to second gait analysis tests. The knee and ankle eccentric load decreased with the use of foot orthoses and a trial of conservative treatment. The clinical response to non-operative treatment can be quantified with selected biomechanical variables. The impact and active vertical forces, and knee and ankle eccentric loads may give insight to the mechanisms by which orthoses may be successful in the management of common running injuries.
Author Gary J. SlaterSource: International SportMed Journal 2, pp 1 –9 (2001)More Less
β-Hydroxy β-methylbutyrate (HMB), a metabolite of the essential amino acid leucine, is a relatively new ergogenic aid proposed to influence skeletal-muscle protein metabolism and cell-membrane integrity. As with many new dietary supplements, relatively few investigations have been undertaken to critique claims of lean-bodymass gain, strength development, fat-mass loss, and suppression of exercise-induced skeletal-muscle damage. Furthermore interpretation of data from several investigations undertaken to date is difficult because of limitations in assessment techniques or lack of control over parameters that are liable to influence outcomes. Support for the ergogenic potential of HMB is at best inconsistent and transient, especially in previously trained individuals. The duration of administration in investigations undertaken to date, however, might be inadequate to enable identification of responses unique to HMB supplementation. Thus, longer-duration investigations using more precise monitoring techniques are warranted. Based on current evidence, athletes might be better advised to use other strategies that have proven to enhance performance.
Source: International SportMed Journal 2, pp 1 –8 (2001)More Less
This review addresses important biomechanical principles associated with competitive swimming, especially obstacles to mechanical efficiency. The various drag factors encountered are defined and addressed. Freestyle swimming is used as the example to illustrate these principles. The propulsion-force development during swimming is also reviewed to demonstrate the most efficient mechanical model. The various kinetic components of freestyle swimming are then reviewed to demonstrate their mechanical contribution to swimming speed and to delineate the kinematics of freestyle.