International SportMed Journal - Volume 4, Issue 1, 2003
Volume 4, Issue 1, 2003
Maxillofacial injuries in sportive urban microscooter riders : an underestimated problem? : short articleSource: International SportMed Journal 4, pp 1 –5 (2003)More Less
The objective of this study was to establish preventive measures for injuries associated with adult microscooter riders. A prospective data analysis of 58 microscooter injuries was performed, using a relational database. Of the 58 patients examined, 40 suffered head injuries : 24 had deep facial lacerations, 4 had nasal bone fractures, 2 had fractured mandibles, and 10 had cerebral concussions. Six patients showed clinical signs of a cervical whiplash injury. The patients with facial lacerations needed suturing, while those with fractured mandibles underwent internal fixation. None of the injured patients were wearing helmets at the time of their accident. The microscooters had all been used for transportation purposes in the streets, rather than for sport or recreation. According to the patients the main cause of their accident was the loss of control of the microscooter while trying to slow down or to stop. All patients with face and head trauma reported falling over the steering fork. The authors conclude that after 36 months of observation, riding a microscooter seems to be as dangerous as any other roller sport. The need for protective gear, such as helmets, is discussed, especially if the microscooters are used on the streets. Injury surveillance is important in order to review the injury risks associated with the use of microscooters.
Author Philip R.H. NewsomeSource: International SportMed Journal 4, pp 1 –7 (2003)More Less
This paper presents a review of oral-facial injuries received during participation in sport and the possibilities open to athletes for their prevention. It is clear that participation in a number of sports does carry a considerable risk of sustaining dental injury, not only in the so-called contact sports such as rugby and hockey, but also in less obviously dangerous sports such as basketball. The mouthguard is widely regarded as being the most effective way of preventing such injuries. It is also clear that the custom-fabricated mouthguard, in particular the pressure-laminated variety, is seen to afford most protection. As with other preventive measures mouthguard usage is often less than the dental profession would like; the reasons for this are numerous, including a lack of awareness of the benefits of mouthguard wear. While much progress has been made in this area, the profession could do much more to promote the greater use of mouthguards.
Author Andrew S. McIntoshSource: International SportMed Journal 4, pp 1 –9 (2003)More Less
Head injury and concussion remain of great concern in sports. The use of helmets in sport is widespread as a method of reducing the incidence and severity of head injury. For helmets to function well designers and standards organisations need to be informed of sport specific hazards and head injury risks. These data are available, but due to regional and competition level differences within a sport, and differences in injury surveillance systems, there are large discrepancies. Unfortunately, due to the material limitations helmets are designed to meet a fairly narrow range of impact hazards. It is important that the sports can convey their needs to the standards organisations and manufacturers, e.g. a helmet to prevent intra-cranial haemorrhage and skull fracture resulting from a severe high-speed impact or a helmet to prevent concussion in a contact sport, like rugby union football. The paper describes these issues and attempts to integrate the biomechanical aspects of head injury and helmet performance, helmet test methods and sport requirements. On a practical level, athletes can be advised on the correct selection and adjustment of helmets, and on the limitations in helmet performance. Other factors, such as technique, rules and rule enforcement, and venue preparation are important in reducing head injury.
Author Gary W. KerrSource: International SportMed Journal 4, pp 1 –5 (2003)More Less
Soccer matches are regular crowd events and the attending medical personnel may have to respond to isolated emergencies or even major incidents. An adequate response is dependent on a number of key issues being addressed when emergency medical planning for such events is undertaken. This paper outlines basic standards that should be followed. Medical cover at mass gatherings, such as soccer matches, should be able to provide some degree of emergency primary care, advanced life support where necessary, and allow for a rapid, on-site response in the event of an emergency involving significant casualties. It should be mandatory that there should at least one fully equipped ambulance at all matches that have more than 5 000 people, and three First Aiders at any match.
Author Lucy-May HoltzhausenSource: International SportMed Journal 4, pp 1 –14 (2003)More Less
This article offers practical guidelines to the provision of an emergency medical service to athletes competing in a road race. The article outlines what pre-race planning and organisation is required to (1) predict the number and type of casualties expected on the day of the event, (2) detail prevention strategies to reduce the number of casualties, (3) describe the layout and equipping of a finish line medical facility. The triage system outlined is designed to efficiently and safely manage a large number of collapsed and injured athletes at a road race.
Acute cervical spine injuries in the athlete : diagnosis, management, and return-to-play : review articleSource: International SportMed Journal 4, pp 1 –9 (2003)More Less
Approximately 10% of the 10 000 annual cervical spine injuries in the United States occur in athletes. These occur in athletes of any ability and all levels of competition. Serious traumatic injuries are rare, and should initially be managed as any spine trauma case with immobilisation and thorough neurological and radiographic examination. Less severe injuries, such as "burners" or "stingers" and rarely transient quadriparesis, may occur in any contact sporting endeavour and should be carefully evaluated before return to play is allowed. Typically, symptoms from these injuries resolve quickly (minutes to hours); prolonged duration of neurological symptoms should raise the suspicion of a more serious bony or soft tissue cervical injury. Ultimately, the physician must decide when it is appropriate for the injured athlete to return to activity, and at what level. While no consensus exists as to consistent return to play criteria, the authors present their own recommendations, based on a thorough review of the literature and extensive clinical experience. Ultimately, the decision to return to play must be individualised, and should include an assessment of several factors such as the mechanism of injury, the anatomical site of injury, radiographic findings, and the athlete's clinical examination and recovery.