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n International SportMed Journal - Imaging of chronic ankle injuries in the athlete : review article
Objective: To review the role of imaging techniques in the diagnosis and management of chronic ankle injuries in athletes.
Data sources: A MEDLINE search was performed to find relevant articles. Search words included ankle injuries, athletes, imaging ankle injuries, MR imaging ankle, US imaging ankle injuries, ankle impingement.
Study selection: Where possible, studies were selected that were recent and prospective. However, due to the relatively small amount of information available on some subjects, retrospective studies have been included.
Conclusions: Imaging of chronic ankle injuries in athletes is sophisticated. Due to the often complex mechanism of the injury, multiple pathologies may be present. Conventional radiography allows the assessment of bony anatomy and complications of fractures. Musculoskeletal ultrasound (US) is now increasingly used to assess the soft tissues of the ankle as it allows high resolution and dynamic assessment of the muscles, tendons and ligaments. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has largely superseded computed tomography (CT) and bone scintigraphy. MR imaging can demonstrate osseous and soft tissue oedema, but its role is yet to be established in the diagnosis of impingement syndromes. Cross-sectional (CT and MR) arthrography appears to offer the most accurate imaging assessment of capsular, osteochondral and ligamentous abnormalities.
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