International SportMed Journal - Volume 7, Issue 2, 2006
Volume 7, Issue 2, 2006
Source: International SportMed Journal 7, pp 75 –84 (2006)More Less
The benefits of regular exercise in reducing cardiovascular morbidity and diabetes are well accepted. What is more vexing is whether exercise, especially running, has a deleterious effect on the joints, particularly of the lower limb. From the available evidence, recreational running does not appear to lead to premature development of osteoarthritis. However, there may be a risk in elite athletes related to the type of sport and intensity of training, and previous joint injury certainly increases the risk for subsequent development of osteoarthritis.
Source: International SportMed Journal 7, pp 85 –97 (2006)More Less
As adolescent athletes place increasing demands on their bodies, injuries in this population are frequent and becoming more common. Overuse injuries, rather than acute traumatic events, comprise the majority of injuries in adolescents. These injuries, as in adults, are a result of poor form, poor habits, and poor training patterns. In addition, anatomic variations in the hind-foot, mid-foot, and forefoot may predispose an athlete to specific injuries. Prevention of these injuries and early intervention by an orthopaedist can decrease the athlete's time lost to injuries and potential long-term adverse effects. The objective in this paper is to review common sports-related injuries of the foot and ankle in the adolescent athlete, with particular attention paid to overuse injuries in terms of contributing factors, prevention and treatment.
Source: International SportMed Journal 7, pp 98 –108 (2006)More Less
<I>Objective:</I> The primary objective of this review was to synthesise the literature related to risk factors for running injuries, with an emphasis on predicting the risk of injury based upon biomechanical variables. <BR><I>Data sources:</I> Literature sources from a broad range of scientific journals were searched, focusing primarily on literature describing studies which directly related to risk factors for overuse running injuries of the lower extremity. <BR><I>Study section:</I> There were a total of 74 studies reviewed. Data were primarily reviewed from experimental and epidemiological studies. <BR><I>Data extraction:</I> Only data from research published in refereed journals or professional conference proceedings were presented in this review. <BR><I>Data synthesis:</I> Although many sources suggest that about 60% of running injuries are due to training errors, from a practical standpoint, it could be stated that all overuse running injuries are attributable to training variables. In order to sustain an overuse injury, a runner must have exceeded his / her limit of running distance and / or intensity in such a way that the remodelling of the injured structure predominated over the repair process. Biomechanical and anthropometric variables are very important in determining where the limits exist for an individual. <BR><I>Conclusions:</I> Since all overuse running injuries could be attributed to training errors, then it would follow that these injuries should be preventable. A proactive approach may enable practitioners to predict running injury risk based upon biomechanical and anthropometric profiles of runners. Future prospective studies could further identify variables which are most responsible for running injuries, and determine easily measurable variables that may correlate to these risk factors.
Source: International SportMed Journal 7, pp 109 –119 (2006)More Less
<I>Objective:</I> To review the literature with respect to the influence of foot orthotics on the treatment of running injuries and to discuss the biomechanical functioning of orthotics during running. <BR><I>Data sources:</I> This paper was written based on peer-reviewed published literature. (Source: PubMed and SportDiscus. Search terms: orthotic, running, injury, and pertinent variants of each. Dates: all data inclusive to the end of 2005). <BR><I>Conclusions:</I> The reported success rate of orthotic intervention in relieving running injury and pain varies from 25%-95% and is generally over 70%. However, randomised control studies that control for confounding factors are still required to fully evaluate the efficacy of orthotic use in running. Recent studies have challenged the previously accepted function of orthotics in aligning the skeleton, suggesting that orthotics result in minimal changes in skeletal movement. New concepts, such as reducing muscle activity, decreasing joint loading and increasing cushioning, have been proposed as potential functions of orthotics in addressing running injuries. Some of the latest studies are starting to address these concepts but additional data are still required before definitive conclusions can be established.
A review of anthropometric, biomechanical, neuromuscular and training related factors associated with injury in runners : review articleSource: International SportMed Journal 7, pp 120 –137 (2006)More Less
<I>Objective:</I> Provide a current review of the literature concerning the epidemiology and risk factors for injuries in runners. <BR><I>Data sources:</I> The information in this paper is taken from a review of articles and book chapters (Source: PubMed and MEDLINE, years covered 1966-2006). <BR><I>Conclusions:</I> Understanding the precise causative nature of risk factors in running populations remains a challenging task. Comparison of various works in the literature is impeded by large variations in injury definition, subject population and study design. Weekly running volume continues to be considered a strong risk factor, however more work is needed to determine whether it is the absolute volume, or the increase in volume that is deleterious. Recent research has provided greater insight into the risks that previous injury and lack of full rehabilitation may play in recreational runners starting a training program. Variables related to excessive rear-foot eversion and pronation are frequently sited in combination with the incidence of specific injuries; however, the role of impact characteristics remains in debate. Isokinetic research of hip muscle function is helping to link our understanding of lower extremity kinematics, but requires more research to be proven as a causative factor. Future research in joint coupling and functional training of the complete lower extremity will be beneficial in implementing preventative interventions for running populations.
Does running shoe prescription alter the risk of developing a running injury? : original research articleSource: International SportMed Journal 7, pp 138 –153 (2006)More Less
<I>Background:</I> Currently, a large spectrum of running shoes is available to a runner. Running shoes are manufactured and marketed in various categories ranging from "motion control", "neutral", or "soft shockabsorbing" shoes. Runners, and health professionals advising them, are informed that the use of inappropriate footwear, not based on matching the appropriate shoe category to the lower limb alignment in runners, is linked to an increased risk developing a running injury. <BR><I>Objective:</I> The objective of this retrospective cohort study was to investigate whether runners, who had been advised on running shoes following a clinical lower limb biomechanical assessment prior to purchasing new running shoes, have a reduced risk of developing a running injury when compared to runners who have not been advised in this manner. <BR><I>Methods:</I> The Experimental Group consisted of 177 out of 400 randomly selected runners (44% response rate) from a potential list of 900 runners who had previously undergone a clinical lower limb biomechanical assessment followed by a running shoe prescription (EXP group = 94). A group of runners matched for age, height, weight and gender, who purchased running shoes through normal means were recruited as controls (CON group = 83). All the subjects completed a previously validated questionnaire that was designed to mainly document training history and running injury incidence (injuries per 100 running sessions) and injury type in the 12-month period following running shoe purchase. <BR><I>Results:</I> An analysis of training and racing history showed that the CON group did significantly more training sessions in the 12 months following shoe purchase. There was no significant difference in the groups with respect to weekly stretch sessions, use of orthotics, and frequency of training on different running surfaces. There was no significant difference in injury incidence between the groups (CON=6.71, EXP=6.04 injuries/100 sessions) or subgroups of runners in each group with either a past history of running injury or no past history. The incidence of specific common running injuries was not different between the groups. <BR><I>Conclusion:</I> A clinical lower limb biomechanical assessment, followed by running shoe purchase, does not reduce the risk of developing a running injury any more than following general advice on running shoe purchase.
Magnitude and duration of the effects of plantar sole massages on the upright stance control mechanisms of healthy individuals : original research articleSource: International SportMed Journal 7, pp 154 –169 (2006)More Less
<I>Background:</I> The purpose of the present study was to investigate (1) the effects of plantar sole massages on upright stance control mechanisms and (2) whether the magnitude of these effects were modified with increasing duration of plantar sole massage. <BR><I>Methods:</I> Twelve young healthy individuals stood barefoot on a force platform before and after three sessions of 10-minute massages applied under the feet. The centre of foot pressure (CP) displacements were used to estimate the vertically projected motions of the centre of gravity (CG<sub>v</sub>) and its difference from the CP (CP-CG<sub>v</sub>) along medio-lateral (ML) and antero-posterior (AP) axes. These motions were processed through a frequency analysis and modelled as fractional Brownian motion (fBm) in order to gain insight into the nature of the control mechanisms called into play and their spatio-temporal organisation. <BR><I>Results:</I> Decreased CP-CG<sub>v</sub> and CG<sub>v</sub> amplitudes along the ML axis were observed after each massage, indicating a better control of the body weight distribution over the two supports. The fBm modelling further showed some reduced spatial transition point coordinates and more deterministic corrective mechanisms along the two axes, hence explaining the reduced centre of gravity motions. <BR><I>Conclusions:</I> The present findings suggest that plantar sole massages yielded a reorganisation of the control mechanisms for maintaining undisturbed upright stance.