International SportMed Journal - Volume 7, Issue 4, 2006
Volume 7, Issue 4, 2006
Author Richard A. StretchSource: International SportMed Journal 7, pp 231 –237 (2006)More Less
This review focuses on synthesizing and analyzing the scientific research that has been carried out into cricket equipment. Specifically, it relates to the elements which have contributed to the safety aspects of the game, with the primary focus of the research aimed at addressing the safety aspects of batsmen who may be faced with a ball being projected up to 44m s<sup>-1</sup> from a distance of about 18 meters. The research has covered the safety aspects relating to batting gloves, helmets and pads and the thermoregulation of batting helmets and clothing worn by cricketers. Further, although cricket bats are used primarily to score runs and prevent the batsman from being dismissed, the impact and rebound characteristics of traditional English willow, Kashmir willow and composite cricket bats was assessed. <br>In conclusion, cricket equipment for batsmen has been researched and in most cases has been found to offer the cricket batsman sufficient protection. However, it is clear that there is a need for further scientific research into the design of equipment, particularly cricket bowling boots for fast bowlers.
Author Justin A. PaoloniSource: International SportMed Journal 7, pp 238 –254 (2006)More Less
<I>Objective:</I> Literature review of topical glyceryl trinitrate treatment for chronic tendinopathy. <br><I>Data sources:</I> MEDLINE, PubMed, and EMBASE searches were performed in April, 2006 on all studies from 1966 onwards using the terms: nitric oxide, nitroglycerin, glyceryl trinitrate, tendon, tendonitis, tendinosis, tendinopathy, tendonopathy, elbow, tennis elbow, epicondylitis, epicondylosis, Achilles, patella, patellar, supraspinatus, impingement, and rotator cuff. <br><I>Study section:</I> Only randomised controlled trials were included in the analysis. Four studies were identified using topical glyceryl trinitrate treatment in tendinopathy. <br><I>Data extraction:</I> Relevant literature was identified, sourced, and reviewed. <br><I>Data synthesis:</I> Topical glyceryl trinitrate treatment of chronic tendinopathy has recently been investigated with several published clinical trials. Randomised, double-blind, placebo controlled clinical trials investigating topical glyceryl trinitrate treatment (1.25mg/24-hours) for chronic tendinopathies in adults (Achilles tendinopathy, N=84: extensor tendinopathy at the elbow, N=95: and supraspinatus tendinopathy, N=57) have demonstrated improved patient outcomes when compared with rehabilitation alone. Topical glyceryl trinitrate treatment results in significant improvements in patient rated pain, increased tendon force measures, improved functional measures, and improved patient outcomes relative to tendon rehabilitation. Outcomes at 6 months demonstrate that 22-29% more patients were completely asymptomatic when treated with topical glyceryl trinitrate. Effect size estimates ranged from 12-26%. <br><I>Conclusions:</I> Topical glyceryl trinitrate treatment is a well-tested medication with no irreversible side effects and use of this therapy is warranted to treat chronic tendinopathies to improve patient outcomes. Topical glyceryl trinitrate treatment requires further investigation to: define the mechanism of action of glyceryl trinitrate in tendinopathy, and delineate the most effective dosage regime to maximize effect and limit side effects.
Source: International SportMed Journal 7, pp 255 –265 (2006)More Less
<I>Background:</I> Soccer is known to be associated with a relatively high injury rate but to our knowledge there is no epidemiologic data in South American soccer. <br><I>Objective:</I> Analysis of injury incidence in the professional soccer team of the Club Atlético Boca Juniors over two competitive seasons. <br><I>Type of study:</I> Prospective study. <br><I>Methods:</I> An injury report system was kept by the club's medical staff for all training sessions and matches. <br><I>Results:</I> A total of 391 injuries per year were documented, with an average of 9.53 injuries per player per season. The mean (SD) number of days absent per injury producing some kind of training or match participation limitation was 9 (SD 15). Each week 10% of the team (4 players) was not able to train or play due to injury. The majority of injuries (87%) were slight or minor. A total of 1442 days and 354 matches were missed. Competition injuries represented 31% of those reported. <br><I>Conclusions:</I> Professional soccer players are exposed to a high risk of injury; with 10% of our professional players unable to play each week due to injury. The majority of injuries were sustained during training rather than competitive matches; these results are in contrast to findings within European soccer. Injuries produce considerable economic and performance losses for a soccer team and probably long lasting consequences for the health and sport career of a soccer player.
Injuries among professional soccer players of different age groups : a prospective four-year study in an English Premier League Football Club : research articleSource: International SportMed Journal 7, pp 266 –276 (2006)More Less
<I>Background:</I> There are very few studies that compare the incidence and type of injuries in youth and senior elite soccer players with similar training and playing conditions over a sustained period of time. <br><I>Hypothesis:</I> The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the incidence and severity of injuries sustained by the senior and youth team soccer players at an English Premiership Football Club over four years. <br><I>Study design:</I> Prospective and descriptive study. Data related to the occurrence, severity and location of injury, and how they affected participation in training and games, were collected for both groups over four years. <br><I>Methods:</I> Injuries were prospectively recorded by the club's medical staff on a standardised database. Statistical analyses were performed with SPSS. <br><I>Results:</I> There were 191 injuries in the senior team (85 players) and 236 in the youth team (112 players). All senior players sustained at least one recordable injury, compared with 110 injured players out of 112 in the youth team. The injury incidence during games was 23.2 injuries per 1000 hours in the senior team and 25.0 injuries per 1000 hours in the youth team, which was higher than that during training (4.2 injuries per 1000 training hours in senior team, 6.1 injuries per 1000 training hours in the youth team). There was no significant difference in absence per injury between the senior team (average 27.7 days) and the youth team (average 28.7 days). The knee (24%) and thigh (22%) represented the most common locations of injury in the senior team, whilst in the youth team the knee (19%) and ankle (19%) were most frequently injured. <br><I>Conclusions:</I> Although there is a slightly different injury pattern between senior and youth team players, the consequences for participation in training and games in the senior and youth team players of this English Premier Football Club are similar. <br><I>Clinical relevance:</I> Youth team players are selected by Premier League Football Clubs with the ultimate aim to establish themselves in the first team squad. Injury, at such an important stage of their career development could significantly influence this progression.