n International SportMed Journal - A comparison of injury rates in organised sports, with special emphasis on American bull riding : review article

Volume 8, Issue 2
  • ISSN : 1528-3356



The authors set out to determine which sport in the literature has the highest injury rates.

A systematic review of sports injury studies was performed using the PubMed database on the National Library of Medicine website, using the key words: ''Injury Incidence'' in combination with each of the sports: ''boxing,'' ''football,'' ''hockey,'' ''rodeo,'' ''rugby,'' and ''soccer.''
Using a 3-round selection process, 2021 papers were reviewed. Those papers that did not report injury rates as a function of time were excluded.
Each paper underwent an independent review by two authors. Injury rates from the papers reporting the top 5 injury rates for each sport were recorded and placed into an electronic spreadsheet for comparison. All selected studies reported injury rates as a function of time, although the unit of time was not always the same; therefore, simple extrapolation was made for all studies to make the unit of time in hours.
The injury rate in bull riding was found to be 1440 injuries/1000 exposure hours; 1.56 times greater than amateur boxing, 1.75 times greater than semi-professional rugby, 10.3 times greater than American football, and 13.3 times greater than ice hockey.
The authors conclude that injury rates vary widely between contact sports and that American bull riding is the most dangerous organised, spectator sport in the world.

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Article metrics loading...


This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error