International SportMed Journal - Volume 8, Issue 3, 2007
Volume 8, Issue 3, 2007
A comparison of injury rates in organised sports, with special emphasis on American bull riding : review articleSource: International SportMed Journal 8, pp 78 –86 (2007)More Less
<I>Objective:</I> The authors set out to determine which sport in the literature has the highest injury rates.<br><I> Data sources:</I> A systematic review of sports injury studies was performed using the PubMed database on the National Library of Medicine website, using the key words: "Injury Incidence" in combination with each of the sports: "boxing," "football," "hockey," "rodeo," "rugby," and "soccer." <br><I>Study section:</I> Using a 3-round selection process, 2021 papers were reviewed. Those papers that did not report injury rates as a function of time were excluded.<br><I> Data extraction:</I> Each paper underwent an independent review by two authors. Injury rates from the papers reporting the top 5 injury rates for each sport were recorded and placed into an electronic spreadsheet for comparison. All selected studies reported injury rates as a function of time, although the unit of time was not always the same; therefore, simple extrapolation was made for all studies to make the unit of time in hours. <br><I>Data synthesis:</I> The injury rate in bull riding was found to be 1440 injuries / 1000 exposure hours; 1.56 times greater than amateur boxing, 1.75 times greater than semi-professional rugby, 10.3 times greater than American football, and 13.3 times greater than ice hockey. <br><I>Conclusions:</I> The authors conclude that injury rates vary widely between contact sports and that American bull riding is the most dangerous organised, spectator sport in the world.
Author Reed FerberSource: International SportMed Journal 8, pp 97 –106 (2007)More Less
<I>Objective:</I> The primary objective of this review was to synthesize the literature related to the use of foot orthoses and how they can potentially alter lower extremity running biomechanics and neuromuscular activity.<br><I> Data sources:</I> Literature sources from a broad range of scientific journals were searched, focusing primarily on literature describing studies which directly related to orthoses and their effect on lower extremity running biomechanics. <br><I>Study section:</I> Data were primarily reviewed from experimental and epidemiological studies. <br><I>Data extraction:</I> Only data from research published in refereed journals or professional conference proceedings were presented in this review. <br><I>Data synthesis:</I> While the clinical efficacy of orthoses is widely documented, the mechanism behind that success is not well understood. Many biomechanical and electromyographic (EMG) investigations have been conducted to understand the alterations in lower extremity kinematics, kinetics, and muscle EMG when running in an orthotic device. However, there are several methodological differences across these studies including healthy versus injured individuals, types of orthoses used, and variables of interest. <br><I>Conclusions:</I> Overall, foot orthoses are effective in the treatment of overuse injury. However, those studies investigating the effect of foot orthoses on the lower extremity kinematics and kinetics have reported conflicting results.
A systematic review of running shoes and lower leg biomechanics : a possible link with patellofemoral pain syndrome? : review articleSource: International SportMed Journal 8, pp 107 –116 (2007)More Less
<I>Objective:</I> This paper aims to review the relationship between running shoes and lower leg biomechanics in order to establish a possible link between patellofemoral pain syndrome and running shoe design. This may shed light on the alternative management of patellofemoral pain syndrome. <br><I>Data sources:</I> MEDLINE (PubMed), CINAHL and EMBase databases were searched using the following keyword: patellofemoral, footwear, motion, kinematics, shoe, running, knee, pain. <br><I>Study section:</I> A total of 42 articles were screened. <br><I>Data extraction:</I> Manuscripts were read and then grouped into the different sub-topics of this review paper, including (1) patellofemoral pain syndrome; (2) the relationship between excessive foot pronation and patellofemoral pain syndrome; (3) footwear for controlling excessive rearfoot pronation; and (4) the relationship between patellofemoral pain syndrome and running shoes. <br><I>Data synthesis:</I> Possible kinematics transfer from the rearfoot to the patellofemoral joint is illustrated. This may provide a rationale for tackling patellofemoral pain syndrome through the appropriate selection of running shoes. <br><I>Conclusion:</I> Appropriate footwear selection may contribute to the effective management of patellofemoral pain syndrome in runners with excessive rearfoot pronation.
Source: International SportMed Journal 8, pp 141 –165 (2007)More Less
Ballet is an exquisitely sophisticated and elegant art form. However its seeming ease and gracefulness belie the underlying physical stress. Much of a dancer's ability is reliant on favourable anatomy, strength and flexibility. Their foot mechanics, training and performing techniques are unique and thus they present with particular injury patterns. The following paper aims to address these differences and provide an approach to assessing and treating foot and ankle injuries in the ballet dancer.
Support and safety features in preventing foot and ankle injuries in equestrian sports : review articleAuthor Dimitri CeroniSource: International SportMed Journal 8, pp 166 –178 (2007)More Less
Equestrian injuries are commonly seen at trauma centres, and they are usually severe, with between 15%-27% of injured patients hospitalised. Moreover, it is recognised that 1 rider in 10 000 is fatally injured per year. Proportionally, injuries to the ankle, foot and toes remain rare in equestrian trauma. According to the injuries recorded in the literature, ankle injuries represent 5.3% of all the injuries, foot injuries 4%, and toe injuries 1%. Most riders with ankle injuries are injured while mounted on a horse, whereas the injuries to the feet and the toes occur primarily when the rider is standing alongside the horse. The risk of severe foot injuries are as a result of when, after falling from the horse, the rider is dragged behind the horse with his / her foot hooked in the stirrup. In this situation, the injury will be consistent with a trauma in forced abduction of the forefoot. Effective protective equipment currently on the market includes reinforced riding boots and safety stirrups. Safety stirrups are designed so that the foot is released easily from the stirrup if the rider falls, thus preventing severe injury. Also, reinforced riding boots will protect the rider's ankle and feet from being accidentally crushed or kicked by the horse. In general, horse-related injuries to the ankle or the foot can often be prevented, or at least diminished in severity, through specific interventions, which are discussed in this article. Prevention programmes should promote complete protective equipment use, including the use of proper riding boots and safety stirrups. Moreover, the education and training of inexperienced riders by equestrian sports professionals regarding safe handling and riding of horses should be provided.