International SportMed Journal - Volume 9, Issue 2, 2008
Volume 9, Issue 2, 2008
Author Herbert LöllgenSource: International SportMed Journal 9 (2008)More Less
Competitive and recreational sports participation in hot environments carries a risk of exertional heat stroke and often leads to decrements in performance, increased numbers of medical encounters and participants who are unable to complete the activity. Intensity of activity, acclimatization, hydration, medications and supplements, recent alcohol use, nutrition, sleep hygiene, exposure to air conditioning or night cooling, excessive sport equipment or clothing, malignant hyperthermia, and recent viral illness have all been implicated in the genesis of heat related collapse and exertional heat illness. Administrative decisions are required to modify or cancel competitions in hot environments that put athletes at undue risk. In general, elite athletes tolerate heat better than recreational and sub elite athletes.
Environmental considerations for athletic performance at the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games : review articleAuthor Jill BorresenSource: International SportMed Journal 9, pp 44 –55 (2008)More Less
For the achievement of peak sporting performance, many variables need to be optimized, including physical and mental training, rest, nutrition, team dynamics and tactics. Environmental factors on and around the competition venue may also have a significant impact on performance. This review highlights several important environmental conditions and their possible effect on exercise performance. The factors discussed include temperature, ultraviolet radiation, allergens, atmospheric pollution and altitude. The climatic, atmospheric and weather conditions likely to be prevalent in Beijing at the 2008 Olympic Games are presented and recommendations are provided for optimising performance under these conditions during August, the time at which the Games will be held.
A critical assessment of hormonal methods used in monitoring training status in athletes : review articleAuthor Martine DuclosSource: International SportMed Journal 9, pp 56 –66 (2008)More Less
Objective: To assess and discuss the effects of exercise training on hormonal concentrations.
Data sources: Papers were identified through MEDLINE (keywords: hormones and exercise, overreaching, overtraining).
Study section and data extraction: The selected papers examined were from established sports sciences / endocrine / physiology journals, and specifically related to hormones and exercise.
Conclusions: Optimal hormonal assessment requires that the physiological, technical and analytical variables that can influence the measured hormonal values are understood by those performing the interpretation of hormonal values. Knowledge of these factors will allow a better hormonal follow-up of athletes, and a higher efficiency in detecting and preventing abnormal fatigue and the overtraining syndrome (OTS), as well as preventing hormonal doping.
Author William O. RobertsSource: International SportMed Journal 9, pp 67 –73 (2008)More Less
Chronic obstructive lung disease (COLD) or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a disease with airflow limitation which is only partially reversible. In addition, airflow limitation is ''progressive and associated with an abnormal inflammatory response of the lungs''. Sputum production, chronic cough, and especially dyspnoea on exertion are classic symptoms and signs of COPD.
Author Antony WickerSource: International SportMed Journal 9, pp 74 –78 (2008)More Less
Spondylolysis is a loss of the structural integrity of the vertebral pars interarticularis. The cause of spondylolysis is not yet really clear. It seems to be a congenital dysplasia in the isthmus of a vertebra1 that develops after the birth or a congenital failure of bony closure. Spondylolysis occurs most frequently at the fifth vertebral level (L5), though it can also be found at L4 and very rarely at more proximal levels. In adults, spondylolysis is found in 5 to 7% and many are asymptomatic. It is reported that the frequency is increasing in athletes up to 26.5%3. Spondylolysis is defined as a stress or fatigue fracture of the pars interarticularis caused by recurring trauma resulting from repeated flexion and hyperextension and twisting. These repetitive movements cause a shearing stress to the vertebra resulting in the stress fracture. The developing instability that results can then be exacerbated by sporting activities that emphasise back extension, especially gymnastics, swimming, apparatus gymnastics, soccer, and American football.