International SportMed Journal - Volume 9, Issue 3, 2008
Volume 9, Issue 3, 2008
The effects of magnetism on physiological parameters and implications for athletic performance : review articleSource: International SportMed Journal 9, pp 83 –107 (2008)More Less
This review examines the molecular, cellular and physiological effects of magnetic fields with particular reference to the possible effects of magnetism on athletic performance. Magnetic fields have been shown to alter sub-atomic, molecular and cellular parameters, including the hydrogen bonding and solubility of water, enzyme activity, gene expression, ion transport, membrane permeability and mitochondrial function. Each of which could possibly have an effect on athletic performance, by enhancing the transport of substrates in and out of cells, up-regulating enzyme activity and enhancing the production of ATP. Magnetism has also been shown to affect the central nervous system altering neurotransmitter and hormone levels as well as altering the excitability of peripheral nerves. This could affect athletic performance by enhancing the neuromuscular control, as well as having a central effect altering the perception of pain and fatigue which, in turn, could result in an athlete being able to train harder. Human and animal studies indicate that magnetic fields may have an effect on the cardiovascular system altering the haematocrit, haemoglobin concentration, micro-vascular and vascular tone. This may affect athletic performance by enhancing the oxygen-carrying capacity of blood, as well as the perfusion to active tissue. The musculoskeletal effects of magnetic fields have been well studied and have been shown to up-regulate the growth factors associated with increased bone growth, as well as enhancing the orientation of collagen and bone. This could have important implications for athletes in the prevention and treatment of stress fractures, as well as to enhance bony union following surgery. Today magnetic fields are used to successfully treat fractures, depression, pain, wounds and other medical conditions. Exposure to magnetic fields appears to be safe with very few reported side effects, even after long-term exposure to very strong magnetic fields.
Despite these molecular, cellular and physiological changes induced by magnetic fields, there has, however, been little documented research on the possible effects of magnetism on athletic performance.
Source: International SportMed Journal 9, pp 108 –115 (2008)More Less
Background : There is no formal training programme for the Team Physician (TP) in football at present.
Aim : To determine the common medical conditions and injuries encountered by the TP of a national football team. This could assist the aspiring Team Physicians in self-directed learning.
Type of study : A retrospective descriptive study.
Methods : The records of 174 medical consultations of players and staff at 2 international football competitions, including preceding training camps, in which a National Football Team participated, were analysed looking at the nature and locations of injuries, the illnesses encountered, the referrals to other medical specialists, and the players presenting to the national team in an injured state.
Results : 117(67.2%) of consultations were for injuries, 57(32.7%) were for illnesses and counselling sessions. Upper respiratory tract infections and gastrointestinal conditions accounted for 55% of illnesses. Of the injuries, 99 of 102 (97%) player injuries were soft tissue injuries. One (1%) of the player injuries involved a serious head injury. Five players required referrals to other specialists. Twelve (7%) of consultations involved evaluating and treating players presenting to national team training camps with injuries sustained at their clubs.
Conclusion : The TP in football needs to be versed in : management of soft tissue injuries, emergency medicine and pre-hospital management of traumatic and medical emergencies, and common conditions seen in family medicine. Knowledge of the updated doping control regulations will prevent doping violations. Counselling skills, knowledge of adolescent issues, and basic osteopathic skills are useful. A referral network of medical specialist should be established when travelling.
Source: International SportMed Journal 9, pp 116 –130 (2008)More Less
This study was designed to examine the changes of immunological markers in elite (n = 7) and club amateur (n = 8) triathletes, who completed the 2006 TONG YUNG international triathlon race, by investigating changes of total amounts of leukocytes, neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, immunoglobulins (Igs), IL-6, CK and CRP. Three days prior to the race, all participants had a blood sample drawn from an antecubital vein. Blood samples were also taken immediately after finishing the race, and during recovery periods (2-hours after and 7-days after). The total number of leukocytes immediately after triathlon race was significantly increased in both groups and in the recovery times (p < .05). The number of neutrophils immediately after triathlon race was also significantly increased in both groups and significantly increased in the recovery times (p < .05). The elite triathletes (EG) recovered after 7 days.
In the lymphocytes and monocytes, there were significant increases immediately after the triathlon and in the recovery periods in both groups (p < .05). However, with regard to the monocytes, there were no differences in the period of 7-day R in both groups. With regard to the immunoglobulins, IgA and IgG were significantly increased after the triathlon, while there was no significant increase in the IgM. In IL-6 and CK, these were significantly increased after the race. CRP was, however, not significantly changed.
In conclusion, the triathlon caused an increase in leukocytes, neutrophils, IgG, IL-6, CK, and CRP in the Elite Group (EG) (IgG and IL-6 and CRP was not significantly changed in the Recreational Group (RG)) and there was a decrease in lymphocytes, monocytes, IgA (RG only), and IgM (RG only). Also, elite triathletes responded well and recovered more quickly than the amateur triathletes after the prolonged exercise.
Source: International SportMed Journal 9, pp 131 –140 (2008)More Less
As the prevalence of health problems associated with a sedentary lifestyle increases, there is a worldwide promotion of sporting activities to stimulate physical activity. Hence the number of children and adolescents participating in recreational and competitive sports is growing. As a consequence, more children will seek a pre-participation physical examination. During this evaluation, scoliosis is often detected for the first time. In order to give adequate information, a physician dealing with children and adolescents has to have knowledge about scoliosis, its progression and potential complications.
Source: International SportMed Journal 9, pp 141 –144 (2008)More Less
Varicocele is an abnormal dilatation of the pampiniform venous plexus that surrounds the testis resulting from venous incompetence of the spermatic veins. Varicocele is the most frequent physical finding in infertile men and also is the most common andrological disease found during a male physical examination.
Varicocele occurs on the left side in 78-93% of cases, but it occurs more frequently as bilateral disease than previously documented. Varicocele is graded by an arbitrary scheme as grade I (small with palpable distension detected only during a Valsalva manoeuvre), grade II (moderate with easily palpable distension on upright examination), grade III (large with visible veins on upright examination).