As the title of the series of papers suggests, there are two primary issues for discussion. On the one hand, the question 'To spy or not to spy?' has been posed. This question asks us to consider the nature of the role and function of the South African intelligence community and the role of the secret sector in the security apparatus of the state. On the other hand, the issue of the relationship between intelligence and democracy in South Africa is also brought to the fore. Seeking to establish and maintain democratic control of the intelligence sector is a challenge for even mature democracies. It is therefore important to consider and evaluate how the South African intelligence community is grappling with meeting the democratic demands of openness and accountability while, at the same time, maintaining the secrecy deemed necessary if intelligence is to function effectively.