The Comprehensive Peace Agreement of 9 January 2005 marked the formal end of hostilities between the Sudan Peoples' Liberation Movement / Army (SPLM/A) and the national government's Sudan Armed Forces (SAF). However, it did not end the multiple internal conflicts from which South Sudan suffered. As a result, the Comprehensive Peace Agreement was followed by the Juba Declaration of 8 January 2006, which largely brought to a close the conflict between the SPLM/A and the SAF-supported South Sudan Defence Force (SSDF). The next stage in the pacification of the south in the view of the SPLM/A leadership - and also that of the United Nations (UN) - was the disarmament of the civilian population, and that is the concern of this paper. Almost certainly part of the SPLM/A's urgency in carrying out this disarmament was the conclusion that it needed to ensure that the south was internally secure before it could effectively confront the challenge posed by the SAF's deployment to the oil-producing borderlands and its continuing efforts to foster instability in the south.