This paper is an in-depth analysis on the chair of the African Union. After providing a historical overview, the author explains the modalities for the election of AU chairs and their functions. She then compares different styles of chairmanship in order to evaluate their influence on the evolution of the Pan-African organisation. She also analyses the institutional relations between the AU chairperson and the chairperson of the AU Commission. Finally, she provides an analysis of the prospects for its institutionalisation.