Journal of Contemporary Management - Volume 11, Issue 1, 2014
Volume 11, Issue 1, 2014
Critical Management Research (CMR) : reassessment of the marketing in education discourse in South AfricaAuthor A. Van der BijlSource: Journal of Contemporary Management 11, pp 1 –17 (2014)More Less
Throughout the 1980s and early 1990s, policy makers, supported by a plethora of publications, favoured a marketing approach to the management of educational institutions. While the origins of the approach could be traced to US practice and British legislation, its application found support throughout the Anglophone world. Unlike the application of marketing principles in business, which is uniform, a variety of approaches were applied in education. Similarly, unlike in business where marketing principles are still generally applied, the application of marketing principles in education has all but disappeared. This article uses concepts drawn from the work of Michael Foucault, and undertakes a critical discourse analysis of international literature on marketing in education, with a reflection of the application of marketing principles to the South African education environment. Summary statement of contribution: The study on which this article is based used discourse analysis to analyse the application of marketing principles to the field of education, with a particular focus on education in South Africa. The article provides a summary of various approaches applied and accounts for lack of acceptance of marketing principles by the education community in South Africa.
A new approach to the interpretation of contracts and the management of strategic corporate relationshipsAuthor D. DonnellySource: Journal of Contemporary Management 11, pp 18 –32 (2014)More Less
The paper sets out the most recent legal theory on the approach to be taken by courts to the interpretation of contracts, and examines how this approach has been applied in two recent decisions of the South African Supreme Court of Appeal and the United Kingdom Supreme Court. The new iterative approach to contractual interpretation emphasises reading language in context, as a means to achieve the contractual purpose, despite unclear contractual wording, giving preference to a business-like result.
However, legal theory of contractual interpretation disallows any reference the contracting parties' actual intentions and remains bound by the language used. Courts cannot rewrite what may turn out, in the light of changed (or unanticipated) circumstances, to be a bad bargain.
The paper examines inter-disciplinary connections between this legal theory and management studies on the substitutability/compatibility of formal contracts and relational contracts in the management of strategic relationships. Formal contracts are viewed as an inadequate, or even destructive, means to secure post-contractual cooperation between parties when adapting to changing environments. However, a recent empirical study has suggested that formal contracts can enhance post-contract cooperation when used to balance risk allocation and create trust and perceptions of fairness in strategic alliances.
Strategic information security management as a key tool in enhancing competitive advantage in South AfricaSource: Journal of Contemporary Management 11, pp 33 –46 (2014)More Less
In the current business environment there is a high chance of an information security incident occurring, largely due to the ever-increasing reliance on information technologies. This threat is resulting in a change in legislature regarding the protection of information. Measures and procedures therefore need to be implemented at a strategic level within an organisation to counter the information security threats. The paper describes various components of strategic management of information security with an emphasis on the South African context, and discusses how effective strategic information security and a corporate culture of information security will enhance competitive advantage in the South African and global business environments.
Author I.M. AmbeSource: Journal of Contemporary Management 11, pp 47 –61 (2014)More Less
This article explores the extent to which supply chain practices are implemented by light vehicle manufacturers in South Africa and determines whether there are differences with reference to supply chain practices between manufacturers of different origin (parent companies) in South Africa. A survey was conducted on light vehicle manufacturers in South Africa, using face-to-face questionnaire based on purposive sampling technique. Data was analysed descriptively using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) and the findings reveal that overall, light vehicle manufacturers implemented supply chain practices to a great extent. The most highly implemented practices were "building long-term relationships", "cooperation to improve process" and "collaboration on new product development". "Sharing supply chain risk" was the least implemented across the inbound, outbound and internal supply chain. The article also revealed that in few of the best practices, differences were found between manufacturers of European and Asian parent company origin (parent companies of origin).
Source: Journal of Contemporary Management 11, pp 62 –81 (2014)More Less
The travellers' perceptions of the servicescape of the bus and railway station retail environment in South Africa and its impact on the buyer behaviour of local and international travellers that use bus stations was examined. This study was prompted by observable behaviours of travellers who were impacted by the bus and railway station environment, which induces an interesting type of shopping behaviour amongst them. The results reveal that travellers perceived South African bus and railway stations' servicescape as unattractive. Travellers considered the two dimensions (store image and store ambience) of the stores' servicescape as one composite unit of the servicescape. Shoppers also revealed that the ambience at the bus stations were unpleasant, congested, of poor quality and unreliable merchandise, which complicated shopping from the stations' stores.
Source: Journal of Contemporary Management 11, pp 82 –100 (2014)More Less
Services constitute over 50% of the Gross Domestic Product of most nations of the world and appear to be characterised by unprecedented complexity, unpredictability and rapid change. The traditional management paradigm of scientific management, that has in many respects assumed a life of its own and became inherent in succeeding generations of management theory evolution, thinking and practice, would appear to no longer be effective for dealing with an unpredictable and continually changing global services economy. This paper is directed at exploring the services economy from an institutional management perspective, based on a multidisciplinary review of the contemporary literature. The purpose of this paper is to determine how management theory and practice has evolved in order to remain appropriate in a very competitive, unpredictable and constantly changing global services economy. It is suggested that insights gained from the literature may serve to inform contemporary services management theory and practice. An important finding emanating from the literature is that the management approach adopted needs to be appropriate for the context in which service systems are deployed. A scientific management approach appears to be better suited for ordered contexts, while a complex adaptive systems methodology for complex services encountered is deemed to be more appropriate.
Source: Journal of Contemporary Management 11, pp 101 –119 (2014)More Less
Establishing an e-health infrastructure forms a fundamental building block of the National Health Insurance (NHI) initiative; directed at transforming the South African healthcare infrastructure. Currently patient healthcare records constitute paper-based files that result in numerous difficulties in making patient related information available to healthcare practitioners. This research study was directed at determining the typical difficulties encountered in implementing an electronic healthcare record (EHR) system and how they could be addressed.
A literature review and a narrative enquiry formed the basis of the research study. The empirical study was conducted at a Pretoria based clinic, where an EHR system was being implemented to learn from the practitioners' first-hand experience. A multi-disciplinary literature review was undertaken and the insights gained from the empirical study were correlated with the findings emanating from the literature review.
Findings emanating from the research study indicate that the human socio-technology factors involved in the change management process need to be actively managed. The technology concerns found to play a critical role in the systems deployed; relate to network connectivity and bandwidth. The finding emanating from the research could serve as a source of information for management involved in implementing and managing similar projects.
Comparative analysis of factors influencing customers' attitude towards Internet and cell phone banking servicesAuthor D.K. MadukuSource: Journal of Contemporary Management 11, pp 120 –140 (2014)More Less
Although cell phone banking was preceded by Internet banking, recent statistics in South Africa show that more customers are adopting cell phone banking compared to Internet banking. Customers' attitude significantly influences their behaviour in accepting or rejecting technology. This study employs customers' trust of the Internet and cell phone banking systems and subjective norm together with the TAM's constructs of perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use to simultaneously ascertain retail banking customers' attitude towards Internet and cell phone banking services and to determine whether significant differences exist in their attitude towards these services.
Results of this study indicate that although customers have a positive attitude towards both Internet and cell phone banking services, their overall attitude towards cell phone banking is more positive than that of Internet banking and they are not only more emphatic in their intention to start/continue using cell phone banking, but also to increase their frequency of usage. Hence a more rapid adoption and usage of cell phone banking services are envisaged in South Africa. The study also provides key insights for policy makers, retail banks and marketers responsible for designing, implementing and promoting a more kindly disposed adoption of Internet and cell phone banking in South Africa.
Source: Journal of Contemporary Management 11, pp 141 –163 (2014)More Less
The financial planning industry is in the process of transforming as new regulatory changes have been put into place in the industry. However, this process is implemented gradually and even the successful transformation of financial planning does not guarantee a reciprocal improvement of the public's perceptions of the industry and financial planners.
Therefore the purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of the perceptions of young adults compared to adults, regarding financial planning, and how these perceptions can be changed in order to ultimately increase the use of financial planning services.
The results revealed that an increase in trust and the improved image of financial planners among young adults will reflect positive change in the perceptions of financial planning. Similarly an increase in the awareness of financial planning, positive financial planning experiences by family members and positive perceptions of financial planning will increase the use of financial planning services by young adults. Young adults compared to adults are more trusting of financial planners and more reliant on their family's perceptions when forming their own perceptions of financial planning. Therefore different strategies are required when engaging with young adults as current and potential clients within the industry.
Source: Journal of Contemporary Management 11, pp 164 –184 (2014)More Less
The purpose of this article was to explore current literature on corporate governance, HR governance and HR governance frameworks and to recommend an HR governance framework that can be implemented by South African organisations. This study builds on a literature review that informed the development of an HR governance framework consisting of five core elements that enable HR to manage areas of focus and accountability effectively.
Many organisations' HR governance (and specifically compliance) activities are reactive in origin, established to prevent, limit, or mitigate the risks and liabilities associated with non-compliance. It is therefore necessary that any organisation dedicate resources to proactive compliance measures, such as HR policies and procedures, and that HR move from the traditional roles of regulator and manager to become business partner and HR governor through the institutionalisation of an HR governance framework.
The recommended HR governance framework articulates the areas of focus based on strategic, operational and functional accountabilities. The entire HR community could benefit from this article as the framework could inform South African organisations' future HR governance practices, thereby contributing to more effective management of HR governance.
Source: Journal of Contemporary Management 11, pp 185 –205 (2014)More Less
Leaders are in a key position to promote healthy organisations and transform negatively perceived work experiences and interactions, which might lead to ill health, increased medical costs and employee turnover, into positive responses. This paper addresses salutogenesis (health), sense of coherence and leadership from a context-specific positive organisational behaviour perspective by following a mixed-methods case study approach within the pragmatism research paradigm. The unit of analysis was all the top and middle managers (n = 31) at a selected public utility in the Eastern Cape Province.
Data was gathered by the Antonovsky Sense of Coherence questionnaire, in-depth interviews and observation. Research findings indicated that manageability and comprehensibility were more important than meaningfulness; there was significant difference between gender and the average meaningfulness orientation scale; and Indian respondents scoring significantly higher on meaningfulness than African and White respondents. The qualitative data supported the quantitative findings.
Customer satisfaction at private higher education institutions in South Africa : an importance-performance analysisSource: Journal of Contemporary Management 11, pp 206 –229 (2014)More Less
Students are increasingly being recognised as discerning customers, selecting a provider based on its ability to provide a superior value proposition regarding attributes that are important to them. Unlike their public counterparts, private higher education institutions (PHEI) in South Africa receive no financial support from the government. To ensure students' patronage, it is imperative for private providers to determine their expectations and how they rate the PHEIs performance.
An importance-performance analysis (IP) of 45 attributes was done based on data gathered from a quantitative survey of 600 full-time students at three different PHEIs in South Africa. A comparative IP matrix was also constructed to provide the PHEIs with a visual interpretation of the gathered data. The IP analysis yielded significant negative gaps between performance and importance regarding the attributes. The comparative IP matrix indicates important areas for strategic consideration to the three PHEIs respectively. This should assist management in improving their service offerings. This study should also contribute towards the very limited body of knowledge regarding PHEIs in South Africa.
Reflections on the constraints in entrepreneurial development among emerging survivalist and micro craft enterprises in GautengSource: Journal of Contemporary Management 11, pp 230 –250 (2014)More Less
The development of the creative industries sector is a key strategy of the South African (SA) government for sustainable development and the creation of employment opportunities. This study investigated the constraints in entrepreneurial development among emerging and survivalist craft enterprises in SA. A survey was conducted among 220 craft enterprises.
The findings revealed that craft enterprises face major challenges in terms of finance, technology adoption, training and development, quality assurance and new product development. Instead of relegating craft enterprises to the social welfare departments, it is necessary for the government and policy makers to incorporate such enterprises into the mission and operations of all departments of local governments. Local government and municipalities therefore need to work together in planning permanent trading areas within urban centres for craft enterprises. There is an urgent need to establish and formalise a national co-ordinating structure which can bring government and industry into a uniform national forum to drive growth, training and development and sustainability of the craft sector.
An exploratory analysis of the deficiencies of the South African employment equity framework to regulate the management of acquired brain injuries in the workplaceSource: Journal of Contemporary Management 11, pp 251 –265 (2014)More Less
In the context of experiencing many changes in South Africa over the past two decades, particularly politically and socially, many aspects of our society needed transformation. In the drafting of a new constitution that secured the protection of human rights, and in particular employment rights and employment equity, one particular aspect still remains largely unchanged - the manner in which people with disabilities, particularly those who suffer from Acquired Brain Injuries (ABI) are accommodated in the workplace.
This article is based on an exploratory literature analysis of the ABI phenomenon and also assesses the policy framework, as well as the failure to implement what is already in existence. Examples are drawn from legal precedents, and the global context, and the provisional evidence leads to the understanding that there are deficiencies regarding the management of this particular issue in South Africa.
The role of specific employment strategies, such as generic skill and learnership programmes needs to be further explored and developed for this specific category of disability. Continued research in this field is proposed, and in particular the development of a more comprehensive policy framework, guidelines and procedures for organisations in South Africa to accommodate persons with acquired brain injuries, and to facilitate their return to the workplace.
Source: Journal of Contemporary Management 11, pp 266 –286 (2014)More Less
Craft producers in South Africa face difficulties selling to formal craft retailers. This is due to the lack of understanding of what craft retailers consider as important when searching for suppliers. The study was conducted to determine the importance of various supplier selection criteria that craft retailers use to evaluate suppliers. Convenience sampling was adopted and self-administered questionnaires were completed by a total of 233 craft retailers.
The findings revealed that craft retailers consider product quality as the most important supplier selection criteria when evaluating craft producers as suppliers. The MANOVA results further indicated that although the importance attached to supplier selection criteria differed for various types of craft retailers, such differences occur only for selected supplier criteria. An understanding of the supplier selection criteria used by craft retailers could enable informal craft producers to gain access to the formal market.
Factors influencing the development of productive entrepreneurial behaviour among university studentsSource: Journal of Contemporary Management 11, pp 287 –301 (2014)More Less
South Africa experiences high levels of unemployment and there are various policy proposals aimed at addressing this situation. The most dominant policy proposals come from the National Development Plan, which suggests that small and medium enterprises will play a key role in job creation through procurement, access to equity finance, a simplified regulatory environment and support services.
The objective of this paper is to investigate the factors influencing the development of productive entrepreneurial behaviour among university students. The research methodology focuses on the literature review and a survey of 350 students at the University of KwaZulu-Natal (UKZN).
A key finding emanating from the research is that students are positive about starting an own business; however, they cannot translate these intentions into action. A recommendation is that stakeholders need to work together to design focused interventions for potential graduate entrepreneurs.
Relational benefits and customer satisfaction - a South African short-term insurance industry perspectiveSource: Journal of Contemporary Management 11, pp 302 –323 (2014)More Less
South African short-term insurers struggle to maintain and grow market share due to industry competitiveness and decreasing customer retention rates. One way of retaining customers is to establish and maintain long-term relationships with them. For relationships to last, customers should derive benefits from these relationships. It is furthermore professed that the relational benefits that customers gain from customer-business relationships positively impact customer satisfaction, which in turn enhances the quality of these relationships.
This paper aims to determine whether relational benefits (confidence, social and special treatment benefits) predict customer satisfaction in the South African short-term insurance industry. Research focussing on customer relational benefits is limited, and such research has not been conducted within this industry or context. A quantitative, descriptive research design was undertaken and convenience sampling was used to select respondents. Data was collected by means of self-administered surveys from short-term insurance policy holders residing in Gauteng, South Africa.
The results indicate that confidence benefits best predict customer satisfaction, followed by social and special treatment benefits. It is therefore recommended that, in order to improve customer satisfaction and maintain long-term relationships with customers, short-term insurers adapt their product and service offerings to include confidence, social and special benefits to customers.
Source: Journal of Contemporary Management 11, pp 324 –348 (2014)More Less
With more than 400 annual festivals in South Africa to choose from, arts festival patrons are becoming more selective in their purchase behaviour, resulting in declining festival attendee numbers and tickets sales for some festivals. A better understanding of the influences on ticket purchase behaviour is necessary for the future development of a South African ticket purchase behaviour model. This was accomplished by administering a questionnaire (developed by means of the Delphi technique) among ticket purchasers at two arts festivals. An exploratory factor analysis revealed seven key factors contributing to ticket purchases, and T-tests further revealed findings concerning regular visitors and avid purchasers.
Benefits of examining the sustainability of nonprofit organisations from a system dynamics perspectiveSource: Journal of Contemporary Management 11, pp 349 –366 (2014)More Less
Non-profit organisations (NPO's) contribute in a variety of ways to the betterment of society and to the upliftment of the human race. However, their dependence on external donors for funding and the voluntary provision of services has made the survival of such organisations a perilous and uncertain journey. Added to this, is the many variables, and the feedback relationships between them, that influence the overall sustainability of non-profit organisations.
Thus, a fragmented view looking at only a limited number of factors that influence non-profit sustainability presents many limitations. For this reason, a systems thinking methodology known as System Dynamics (SD) is proposed for a more holistic consideration of the issue of non-profit sustainability by examining the beneficial implications of such an application.
Source: Journal of Contemporary Management 11, pp 367 –384 (2014)More Less
Studies of market efficiency and price discovery use financial time series data, a common example being that of spot and futures prices over a given time period. The spot series is considered 'continuous' and is taken from one specific asset. The futures series is more complicated. This is due to the fact that the futures series represents multiple contracts which are often traded simultaneously.
Empirical research shows clear support for the use of prices on the nearby contract for constructing the futures price series. It is less clear which method for rolling over from one futures contract to the next is preferred. Using the FTSE/JSE Top40 Index and futures contracts, two common rollover approaches are implemented: a rollover one day prior to contract expiry, and a rollover at the end of the month immediately prior to the expiry month.
It is found that results are largely unaffected by the choice of rollover procedure, however, there is evidence that the rollover decision influences the results of the vector error correction model. As a result, caution in choosing a rollover strategy and consideration of the economic and statistical sense of the chosen strategy is recommended when constructing a futures price series.